TEI with Music Notation

 
 

This webspace hosts the results of the work of some members of the TEI Music SIG.

As part of a project funded by the TEI, the group focussed on using TEI's One Document Does it all (ODD) vocabulary to connect the TEI to music encoding formats. Specifically, first efforts concentrated on the Music Encoding Initiative (MEI) format. Therefore, these guidelines describe a TEI-with-MEI customisation that uses the TEI element <notatedMusic> to embed encode music notation.

The examples in these guidelines present typical occurrences of music within written text. They are taken from a handful of documents that we believe demonstrate the need for the inclusion of encoded music notation within TEI-encoded texts. See the bibliography for more information.

All the music examples are encoded using MEI; however, it is possible to use <notatedMusic> to link to external representations of music in any other format. See below for an example.

These guidelines do not claim to be comprehensive; however, we present them with the hope of encouraging further testing, improvement, and widespread use of this customisation.

Additional participants in the SIG's work are welcomed. The Music SIG mailing list is the best place to begin.

 

Download

The downloadable package contains:

  • ODD definition of MEI 2012 with adapted to avoid conflicts with TEI elements (the resulting schema is not affected)
  • TEI-with-MEI customisation (ODD with documentation, RelaxNG)
  • TEI Lite with MEI for Common Music Notation (ODD, RelaxNG)
  • TEI Lite with MEI for Mensural Notation (ODD, RelaxNG)
  • TEI Lite with MEI for Neumatic Notation (ODD, RelaxNG)
  • Editorial Pack: TEI with MEI for Common Music Notation. Both with editorial and transcriptional modules integrated (ODD, RelaxNG)
  • Editorial Pack: TEI with MEI for Mensural Notation. Both with editorial and transcriptional modules integrated (ODD, RelaxNG)
  • Editorial Pack: TEI with MEI for Neumatic Notation. Both with editorial and transcriptional modules integrated (ODD, RelaxNG)

These files are distributed under the license included therein and come with no warranty whatsoever.

Other customizations and combinations are possible. If you would like to see other customizations on this webspace, please get in touch with the Music SIG. Or fork these ODDs on GitHub.

 
 

Generating schemas from the ODD files

Because TEI and MEI sources are defined by two different ODDs, the current Roma webservice cannot generate schemas using this customization. It is therefore necessary to use the UNIX command-line version of Roma (available on TEI's SourceForge), following these instructions:

  • Check out and install TEI's stylesheets and source from SourceForge
  • Copy mei-source.xml in Roma's folder, or change the @source attributes in tei-with-mei.xml on the references to MEI modules to point to the path of mei-source.xml in your system. For example:
<moduleRef key="mei" source="/path/to/mei-source.xml"/>
<moduleRef key="MEI.analysis" source="/path/to/mei-source.xml"/>
<moduleRef key="MEI.cmn" source="/path/to/mei-source.xml"/>
etc.
  • Run Roma on the customisation tei_mei.xml:
$ roma2.sh /path/to/tei_mei.xml
 

Working Group

Members of the working group:

  • Raffaele Viglianti
  • Perry Roland
  • Johannes Kepper
  • James Cummings
  • Daniel Röwenstrunk

Thanks also to:

  • Joachim Veit
  • Benjamin Bohl
  • Maja Hartwig
  • Laurent Pugin
  • Andrew Hankinson
 

1. Notated music in written text 

Music, like many other art forms, is often mentioned, discussed and described in writings of various kinds. This applies to both historical and contemporary documents, even though the way of notating music has changed considerably in western history. In most cases, music notation enters the text flow in a way similar to figures, images or graphs. On other occasions, elements of music notation are treated as inline characters in running text.

The TEI element notatedMusic provides way of signalling the presence of music notation in text, but defer to other representations to describe the music notation itself, which is not covered by TEI guidelines. In fact, several commercial, academic and standard bodies have developed digital representations of music notation and, given the topic's complexity, these representations often focus on different aspects and adopt different methodologies. Therefore, these guidelines define a container element to encode the occurrence of music notation and allow linking to the data format preferred by the encoder.

The TEI-with-MEI described with these guidelines adds to TEI elements from the Music Encoding Initiative (MEI) data format, which is modelled on the TEI, aims to be independent from rendering software, and provides encoding methods for various research approaches in musicology. MEI has been purposely redefined in ODD to allow maximal flexibility when combined with TEI; this is, in fact, also a customisation of MEI meant to accommodate specific issues in representing occurrences of music within the text flow.

All MEI elements in the examples have the prefix mei:, while TEI elements have no prefix.

The element notatedMusic is explained in detail in chapter 14 Tables, Formulæ, Graphics and Notated Music of the TEI guidelines. Here we give a brief summary.

  • <notatedMusic> groups elements representing or containing music notation.
  • <ptr> can be used to indicate the location of a representation of the music notation.
  • <desc> can be used to give a prose description of the notated music.
  • <graphic> can be used to indicate the location of a graphical representation of the music notation.

The notatedMusic element may contain notated music, a textual description and various representations of the music notation in different media. An external representation of the notated music is specified using the ptr element, whose @target attribute provides its electronically-accessible location. The attribute @mimeType supplies the MIME type of the data format when available. For example:

<notatedMusic>
  <ptr target="bar1.xml"/>
</notatedMusic>

A textual description of the notation can be provided within the element desc, or it is possible to give it a label. For example:

<notatedMusic>
  <ptr target="bar1.xml"/>
  <desc>First bar of Chopin's Scherzo No.3 Op.39</desc>
</notatedMusic>

It is possible to link to any kind of music notation data format. However, when a MIME type is not available, it is recommended to at least specify the format in the description. For example:

MIME type available

<notatedMusic>
  <ptr target="bar1.xml" mimeType="application/vnd.recordare.musicxml"/>
  <desc>First bar of Chopin's Scherzo No.3 Op.39. Encoded in MusicXML</desc>
</notatedMusic>

MIME type not available

<notatedMusic>
  <ptr target="bar1.ly"/>
  <desc>First bar of Chopin's Scherzo No.3 Op.39. Encoded in Lilypond</desc>
</notatedMusic>

Application format

<notatedMusic>
  <ptr target="bar1.mscz" mimeType="application/x-musescore"/>
  <desc>First bar of Chopin's Scherzo No.3 Op.39. MuseScore Notation Software format.</desc>
</notatedMusic>

It is possible to specify the location of digital objects representing the notated music in other media such as images. The encoder's interpretation of the correspondence between the notated music and these digital objects is not encoded explicitly. We recommend the use of graphic mainly as a fallback mechanism when the notated music format is not displayable by the application using the encoding. The alignment of encoded notated music, images carrying the notation, and audio files is a complex matter for which we refer the reader to other formats and specifications such as MPEG-SMR.

<notatedMusic>
  <ptr target="bar1.xml"/>
  <graphic url="bar1.jpg"/>
  <desc>First bar of Chopin's Scherzo No.3 Op.39</desc>
</notatedMusic>
 

1.1. Embedding MEI 

Using this customisation, it is possible to include some MEI elements directly within notatedMusic. There are four "entry points" allowed:

  • mei:mei This is MEI's root element. The customisation provides this element in order to embed a complete MEI file, which includes a mandatory header.
  • mei:music This element contains everything else in the document apart from the header. The customisation allows this element in order to embed MEI without a header.
  • mei:mdiv This element contains either or both the score and the instrumental or vocal parts of a musical piece. This element can be used to access lower-lever elements, for example, for encoding a single measure.
  • mei:layer This element contains the streams of events on a staff. The customisation uses this element exclusively to access music symbols that are occurring in the text independently from a staff. For more discussion see Music symbols in running text.

 

1.2. Inline Music Notation Excerpts 

Music notation excerpts can be found in the text flow. In these cases, the notated music is often part of the discourse and does not break the unity of paragraphs or other similar textual structures. To encode such occurrences of music notation, notatedMusic can be used within any TEI element containing text.

The following examples present a few cases of inline music excerpts and show their MEI encoding.

Inline Music Notation Excerpts. Figure 1.
              Beethoven.
<ab>
   <hi rend="italic">Adagio Cantabile</hi> Klawierstimme im (17) Siebzehnten Takt muß statt so wie hier<lb/> 
   <notatedMusic>
      <mei:mdiv>
         <mei:score>
            <mei:scoredef>
               <mei:staffgrp barthru="true">
                  <mei:staffdef n="1" clef.shape="G" clef.line="2"/>
                  <mei:staffdef n="2" clef.shape="F" clef.line="4"/>
               </mei:staffgrp>
            </mei:scoredef>
            <mei:section>
               <mei:measure left="invis" right="dbl">
                  <mei:staff n="1">
                     <mei:layer n="1">
                        <mei:rest dur="8"/>
                        <mei:beam xml:id="m9_s1_e2">
                           <mei:note pname="c" oct="5" dur="8"/>
                           <mei:note pname="d" oct="5" dur="8"/>
                        </mei:beam>
                        <mei:space dur="4"/>
                     </mei:layer>
                  </mei:staff>
                  <mei:staff n="2">
                     <mei:layer n="1">
                        <mei:rest dur="8"/>
                        <mei:beam xml:id="m9_s2_e2">
                           <mei:chord stem.dir="down">
                              <mei:note pname="a" oct="3" dur="8" accid="s"/>
                              <mei:note pname="e" oct="4" dur="8"/>
                           </mei:chord>
                           <mei:chord stem.dir="down">
                              <mei:note pname="b" oct="3" dur="8"/>
                              <mei:note pname="e" oct="4" dur="8"/>
                           </mei:chord>
                        </mei:beam>
                        <mei:chord stem.dir="up">
                           <mei:note pname="e" oct="3" dur="8"/>
                           <mei:note pname="g" oct="3" dur="8"/>
                           <mei:note pname="b" oct="3" dur="8"/>
                           <mei:note pname="d" oct="4" dur="8"/>
                        </mei:chord>
                        <mei:chord stem.dir="down">
                           <mei:note pname="e" oct="2" dur="8"/>
                           <mei:note pname="g" oct="2" dur="8"/>
                           <mei:note pname="b" oct="2" dur="8"/>
                           <mei:note pname="d" oct="3" dur="8"/>
                        </mei:chord>
                     </mei:layer>
                  </mei:staff>
                  <mei:dir staff="1" place="above" startid="m9_s1_e2">x</mei:dir>
                  <mei:dir staff="2" place="below" startid="m9_s2_e2">x</mei:dir>
               </mei:measure>
            </mei:section>
         </mei:score>
      </mei:mdiv>
   </notatedMusic> 
   so heißen bey denen mit x bezeichneten Noten 
   <notatedMusic>
      <mei:mdiv>
         <mei:score>
            <mei:scoredef>
               <mei:staffgrp>
                  <mei:staffdef n="1" clef.shape="G" clef.line="2"/>
                  <mei:staffdef n="2" clef.shape="F" clef.line="4"/>
               </mei:staffgrp>
            </mei:scoredef>
            <mei:section>
               <mei:measure left="invis" right="invis">
                  <mei:staff n="1">
                     <mei:layer n="1">
                        <mei:beam>
                           <mei:note pname="c" oct="5" dur="8" xml:id="m10_s1_e1"/>
                           <mei:note pname="d" oct="5" dur="8" xml:id="m10_s1_e2"/>
                        </mei:beam>
                     </mei:layer>
                  </mei:staff>
                  <mei:staff n="2">
                     <mei:layer n="1">
                        <mei:beam>
                           <mei:chord>
                              <mei:note pname="a" oct="3" dur="8" accid="s" xml:id="m10_s2_e1"/>
                              <mei:note pname="e" oct="4" dur="8"/>
                           </mei:chord>
                           <mei:chord>
                              <mei:note pname="b" oct="3" dur="8" xml:id="m10_s2_e2"/>
                              <mei:note pname="e" oct="4" dur="8"/>
                           </mei:chord>
                        </mei:beam>
                     </mei:layer>
                  </mei:staff>
                  <mei:slur staff="1" startid="m10_s1_e1" endid="m10_s1_e2" curvedir="above"/>
                  <mei:slur staff="2" startid="m10_s2_e1" endid="m10_s2_e2" curvedir="below"/>
                  <mei:dir staff="1" startid="m10_s1_e1" place="above">x</mei:dir>
               </mei:measure>
            </mei:section>
         </mei:score>
      </mei:mdiv>
   </notatedMusic> 
   nemlich der
</ab>
Show full example

Example 1. Common Western Notation. Beethoven. (July 1809)

In this example the music notation is printed within a paragraph, to the right of the text flow. The attribute @place can be used to specify where the music notation occurs with respect to the text. In this case we are using the value "inspace", which means that the notation is printed where some white space was purposefully left.

Inline Music Notation Excerpts. Figure 2. Practica
              Musicae.
<p>
   <notatedMusic place="inspace" rend="right">
      <mei:mdiv>                  
         <mei:score>
            <mei:staffgrp>
               <mei:staffdef n="1" lines="4"/>
            </mei:staffgrp>
            <mei:section>
               <mei:staff n="1">
                  <mei:layer n="1">
                     <mei:barline rend="single"/>
                     <mei:uneume name="clivis">
                        <mei:note pname="g" stem.dir="down" stem.pos="left"/>
                        <mei:note pname="f"/>
                      </mei:uneume>
                      <mei:uneume name="porrectusflexus">
                         <mei:note pname="g" stem.dir="down" stem.pos="left"/>
                         <mei:note pname="f"/>
                         <mei:note pname="g"/>
                         <mei:note pname="f"/>
                      </mei:uneume>
                     <mei:uneume>
                        <mei:ligature>
                           <mei:note pname="g" stem.dir="down" stem.pos="left"/>
                           <mei:note pname="f"/>
                        </mei:ligature>
                     </mei:uneume>
                     <mei:uneume>
                        <mei:ligature>
                           <mei:note pname="g" stem.dir="down" stem.pos="left"/>
                           <mei:note pname="f"/>
                        </mei:ligature>
                        <mei:note pname="g"/>
                        <mei:note pname="f"/>
                     </mei:uneume>
                     <mei:barline rend="single"/>
                  </mei:layer>
               </mei:staff>
            </mei:section>
         </mei:score>
      </mei:mdiv>
   </notatedMusic>
   Quam quidem principijs ligaturarum congruentiam<lb/>
   ueterum auctoritas proprietatem instituit uocitan<lb/>
   dam. Est igitur proprietas conueniens principiis li<lb/>
   gaturarum descriptio a musicis auctoribus institu<lb rend="hyphen"/>
   ta. <seg rend="margin">Philoso<lb/>phus</seg> Vltimis autem commissura notulis: quod omnium<lb/>
   rerum perfectio teste Philosopho fini attribuatur:<lb/> 
   perfectionem ascripserunt. Haec enim tribus modis denotatur: Aut enim vltima<lb/>
   <seg rend="right">ligaturae</seg>
</p>
Show full example

Example 2. Older Notation. Practica Musicae.

 

1.2.1. Music symbols in running text 

Occasionally, music symbols are used in running text. This is common especially in illustrative and educational material, or in analytical essays. TEI currently offers at least two possibilities to encode these occurrences.

1) Using a Unicode character for those music symbols included in the range 1D100-1D1FF (excluding the most common accidentals, already in 2666D-F), for which a chart is available. For example:

<ab>bey 9ten Takt, wo die ♯♯♯ sich in ♮♮♮ auflösen</ab>
or using the corresponding entities:
<ab>bey 9ten Takt, wo die &#x266F;&#x266F;&#x266F; sich in &#x266E;&#x266E;&#x266E; auflösen</ab>

2) Using the g element when the musical symbol needed is not already present in Unicode. For guidance on when and how to use g, see chapter 5 of the TEI Guidelines: Representation of Non-standard Characters and Glyphs.

In some circumstances, however, the encoder might be interested in encoding not only the existence of these symbols, but also their musical meaning using a specific format for music notation. Examples of how notatedMusic could be used for this purpose follow. In this customisation, the element mei:layer can be used independently to obtain access to elements encoding musical symbols without the need to define a staff.

Music Symbols in running text. Figure 1.
                Beethoven.
<ab>
   bey 9ten Takt, wo die 
   <notatedMusic>
      <mei:layer>
         <mei:accid accid="s"/>
         <mei:accid accid="s"/>
         <mei:accid accid="s"/>
      </mei:layer>
   </notatedMusic>
   sich in
   <notatedMusic>
      <mei:layer>
         <mei:accid accid="n"/>
         <mei:accid accid="n"/>
         <mei:accid accid="n"/>
      </mei:layer>
   </notatedMusic>
   auflösen
</ab>
Show full example

Example 1. Common Wester Notation. Beethoven (August 1809)

Music Symbols in running text. Example 2.
                Allorto (2002).
<ab>
   la prevalenza nel soggetto iniziale di figurazioni e note ribatutte con il seguente modulo ritmico:<lb/>
   <notatedMusic>
      <mei:layer>
         <mei:note dur="2"/>
         <mei:note dur="4"/>
         <mei:note dur="4"/>
         <mei:barline rend="single"/>
         <mei:note dur="2"/>
      </mei:layer>
   </notatedMusic>; oppure
   <notatedMusic>
     <mei:layer>
        <mei:rest dur="4"/>
        <mei:note dur="4"/>
        <mei:note dur="4"/>
        <mei:note dur="4"/>
        <mei:barline rend="single"/>
        <mei:note dur="2"/>
     </mei:layer>
   </notatedMusic>;	o ancora
   <notatedMusic>
      <mei:layer>
         <mei:note dur="4"/>
         <mei:note dur="8"/>
         <mei:note dur="8"/>
         <mei:barline rend="single"/>
         <mei:note dur="4"/>
      </mei:layer>
   </notatedMusic>
</ab>
Show full example

Example 2. Modern printing practice. Riccardo Allorto, Nuova storia della musica (2002)

Music Symbols in running text. Example 3. Practica
                Musicae.
<ab>
   Fit igitur notularum triplex descriptio simplex composita:& mediocris. Sim<lb/>
   plex notula est quae alteri notulae non coniungitur:& quadrato corpore figu<lb rend="hyphen"/>
   atur hoc modo 
   <notatedMusic>
      <mei:layer>
         <mei:uneume name="punctum">
            <mei:note/>
         </mei:uneume>
      </mei:layer>
   </notatedMusic> 
   quandoque item cum uirgula in latere eius dextro descen<lb/> 
   dente describitur in modum longae mensurabilis Ut hic. 
   <notatedMusic>
      <mei:layer>
         <mei:uneume name="virga">
            <mei:note stem.pos="right" stem.dir="down"/>
         </mei:uneume>
      </mei:layer>
   </notatedMusic>
</ab>
Show full example

Example 3. Older notation. Practica Musicae (1496)

 

1.3. Music Notation Between Paragraphs, Blocks, Divisions 

In many cases, music notation excerpts are found between blocks of text, paragraphs, or divisions (for more on these concepts refer to Chapter 4 of the TEI Guidelines: Default Text Structure and Chapter 16 §3: Blocks, Segments and Anchors).

Usually, music notation is positioned between blocks of text for illustrative purposes. In a book, text and music notation may occur on the same page, for example between paragraphs, but occasionally the music example may take a full page and may be rotated of 90 degrees to help the formatting of a longer sequence of symbols. These pages are usually positioned between chapters. The following examples show some illustrative cases with their MEI encoding.

This example letter has music notation in its opener, right after the date line supplied by the editor.

Music Notation Between Text Blocks. Figure 1.
              Beethoven
<opener rend="centred">
   <dateline>
      <supplied>
         <placeName><settlement>Wien</settlement></placeName>, 1798/99 </supplied>
   </dateline>
   <notatedMusic>
      <mei:mdiv>
         <mei:score>
           <mei:scoredef>
              <mei:staffgrp>
                <mei:staffdef n="1" lines="5" clef.shape="C" clef.line="3" meter.count="4" meter.unit="4" meter.sym="common">
                   <mei:label>alto</mei:label>
                </mei:staffdef>
             </mei:staffgrp>
          </mei:scoredef>
          <mei:section>
             <mei:measure right="single" xml:id="pickup">
               <mei:staff n="1">
                 <mei:layer>
                    <mei:note pname="g" oct="4" dur="32" stem.dir="up">
                       <mei:verse>
                          <mei:syl wordpos="i" con="u">Ba</mei:syl>
                       </mei:verse>
                    </mei:note>
                    <mei:dir staff="1" type="italic" place="above" tstamp="1">grave</mei:dir>
                 </mei:layer>
              </mei:staff>
           </mei:measure>
           <mei:measure right="invis" xml:id="m1">
              <mei:staff n="1">
                 <mei:layer>
                    <mei:note pname="c" oct="5" dur="2" dots="1" stem.dir="up">
                       <mei:verse>
                          <mei:syl wordpos="t">ron</mei:syl>
                       </mei:verse>
                    </mei:note>
                    <mei:barline rend="invis"/>
                 </mei:layer>
              </mei:staff>
           </mei:measure>
        </mei:section>
        <mei:section restart="true">
           <mei:staffdef n="1" lines="5" clef.shape="C" clef.line="4">
              <mei:label>
                 <mei:rend fontstyle="ital">tenore</mei:rend>
              </mei:label>
           </mei:staffdef>
           <mei:measure right="single" sameas="m1">
              <mei:staff>
                 <mei:layer>
                    <mei:rest dur="8"/>
                    <mei:rest dur="16" dots="1"/>
                    <mei:note pname="g" oct="4" dur="32">
                       <mei:verse>
                          <mei:syl wordpos="i" con="u">Ba</mei:syl>
                       </mei:verse>
                    </mei:note>
                 </mei:layer>
              </mei:staff>
           </mei:measure>
           <mei:measure right="invis" xml:id="m2">
              <mei:staff>
                 <mei:layer>
                    <mei:note pname="e" oct="4" dur="2" dots="1">
                       <mei:verse>
                          <mei:syl wordpos="t">ron</mei:syl>
                       </mei:verse>
                    </mei:note>
                 </mei:layer>
              </mei:staff>
           </mei:measure>
        </mei:section>
        <mei:section restart="true">
           <mei:staffdef n="1" lines="5" clef.shape="F" clef.line="4">
              <mei:label>Basso</mei:label>
           </mei:staffdef>
           <mei:measure right="single" sameas="m2">
              <mei:staff>
                 <mei:layer>
                    <mei:rest dur="8"/>
                    <mei:rest dur="16" dots="1"/>
                    <mei:note pname="g" oct="3" dur="32" stem.dir="down">
                       <mei:verse>
                          <mei:syl wordpos="i">Ba</mei:syl>
                       </mei:verse>
                    </mei:note>
                    </mei:layer>
                 </mei:staff>
              </mei:measure>
              <mei:measure right="single" xml:id="m3">
                 <mei:staff>
                    <mei:layer>
                       <mei:note pname="c" oct="3" dur="4" dots="1" stem.dir="down">
                          <mei:verse>
                             <mei:syl>ron</mei:syl>
                          </mei:verse>
                       </mei:note>
                       <mei:rest dur="32" dots="1"/>
                       <mei:note pname="c" oct="3" dur="32" stem.dir="down">
                          <mei:verse>
                             <mei:syl wordpos="i" con="u">Ba</mei:syl>
                          </mei:verse>
                       </mei:note>
                       <mei:note pname="c" oct="3" dur="4" dots="1" stem.dir="down">
                          <mei:verse>
                             <mei:syl wordpos="t">ron</mei:syl>
                          </mei:verse>
                       </mei:note>
                       <mei:rest dur="32" dots="1"/>
                       <mei:note pname="c" oct="3" dur="32" stem.dir="down">
                          <mei:verse>
                             <mei:syl wordpos="i">Ba</mei:syl>
                          </mei:verse>
                       </mei:note>
                    </mei:layer>
                 </mei:staff>
              </mei:measure>
              <mei:measure right="end" xml:id="m4">
                 <mei:staff>
                    <mei:layer>
                       <mei:note pname="c" oct="3" dur="1">
                          <mei:verse>
                             <mei:syl wordpos="t">ron</mei:syl>
                          </mei:verse>
                       </mei:note>
                    </mei:layer>
                 </mei:staff>
              </mei:measure>
           </mei:section>
        </mei:score>
     </mei:mdiv>
  </notatedMusic>
</opener>
Show full example

Example 1. Common Western Notation. Beethoven. (1798/99)

This example has music notation between the end of a paragraph and the catchword for the following page.

Music Notation Between Text Blocks. Figure 2. Practica
              Musicae.
<p>
   Sonitus uero sol ab ut diapentes interuallo sustinetur in acutum: tribus.s.to<lb/>
   nis & semitonio: quod uariatis notulis per diuersa tenditur interualla ut his de<lb/>
   uctionibns consideratur.
</p>

<notatedMusic>
   <mei:mdiv>
      <mei:score>
         <mei:section>
            <mei:staff n="1">
               <mei:staffdef n="1" lines="4" clef.line="3" clef.shape="F"/>
               <mei:layer n="1">
                  <mei:uneume>
                     <mei:note pname="c"/>
                     <mei:note pname="d"/>
                     <mei:note pname="e"/>
                     <mei:note pname="f"/>
                     <mei:note pname="g" stem.dir="down" stem.pos="right"/>
                  </mei:uneume>
                  <mei:uneume>
                     <mei:note pname="c"/>
                     <mei:note pname="d"/>
                     <mei:note pname="g" stem.dir="down" stem.pos="right"/>
                  </mei:uneume>
                  <mei:uneume>
                     <mei:note pname="c"/>
                     <mei:note pname="d"/>
                     <mei:note pname="e"/>
                     <mei:note pname="g" stem.dir="down" stem.pos="right"/>
                  </mei:uneume>
                  <mei:uneume>
                     <mei:note pname="c"/>
                     <mei:note pname="e"/>
                     <mei:note pname="f"/>
                     <mei:note pname="g" stem.dir="down" stem.pos="right"/>   
                  </mei:uneume>
                  <mei:uneume>
                     <mei:note pname="c"/>
                     <mei:note pname="f"/>
                     <mei:note pname="g" stem.dir="down" stem.pos="right"/>   
                  </mei:uneume>
                  <mei:uneume>
                     <mei:note pname="c"/>
                     <mei:note pname="e"/>
                     <mei:note pname="g" stem.dir="down" stem.pos="right"/>   
                  </mei:uneume>
                  <mei:uneume>
                     <mei:note pname="c"/>
                     <mei:note pname="g" stem.dir="down" stem.pos="right"/>   
                  </mei:uneume>
                  <mei:barline rend="dbl"/>
               </mei:layer>
            </mei:staff>
         </mei:section>
      </mei:score>
   </mei:mdiv>
</notatedMusic>
	
<fw type="catch" rend="right">Sonitus</fw>
<pb n="10"/>
Show full example

Example 2. Older Notation. Practica Musicae. (1496)

 

1.3.1. Music Notation Excerpts as Figures 

In modern printing, music notation positioned between blocks of text for illustrative purposes is usually referred to as a "figure" or "example". In this cases, we recommend the inclusion of notatedMusic in figure in order to encode possible captions and headers. For example:

Music Notation as Figures. Figure 1. Prout.
<div n="67">
   <p>
      We now give some examples, from the works of the great masters, 
      of some of the most frequently used bowings.
   </p>
							
   <figure>
      <head><label>Ex. 3</label>SCHUBERT: Symphony in B minor.</head>
	  <notatedMusic>
         <mei:mdiv>
            <mei:score>
               <mei:scoredef meter.count="3" meter.unit="8" key.sig="4s" key.mode="major">
                  <mei:staffgrp>
                     <mei:staffdef n="1" lines="5" clef.line="2" clef.shape="G"/>
                  </mei:staffgrp>
               </mei:scoredef>
               <mei:section>
                  <mei:measure n="1">
                     <mei:staff n="1">
                        <mei:layer n="1">
                           <mei:note pname="b" oct="5" dur="4" dots="1" stem.dir="down"/>
                        </mei:layer>
                     </mei:staff>
                     <mei:dynam staff="1" tstamp="1">pp</mei:dynam>
                     <mei:slur staff="1" tstamp="1" dur="2m+3"/>
                  </mei:measure>
                  <mei:measure n="2">
                     <mei:staff n="1">
                        <mei:layer n="1">
                           <mei:note pname="c" oct="6" dur="4" dots="1" stem.dir="down"/>
                        </mei:layer>
                     </mei:staff>
                  </mei:measure>
                  <mei:measure n="3">
                     <mei:staff n="1">
                        <mei:layer n="1">
                           <mei:beam>
                              <mei:note pname="b" oct="5" dur="8" stem.dir="down"/>
                              <mei:note pname="g" oct="5" dur="8" stem.dir="down"/>
                              <mei:note pname="e" oct="5" dur="8" stem.dir="down"/>
                           </mei:beam>
                        </mei:layer>
                     </mei:staff>
                  </mei:measure>
                  <mei:measure n="4">
                     <mei:staff n="1">
                        <mei:layer n="1">
                           <mei:note pname="f" oct="5" dur="4" dots="1" stem.dir="down"/>
                        </mei:layer>
                     </mei:staff>
                     <mei:slur staff="1" tstamp="1" dur="1m+1"/>
                     <mei:hairpin form="dim" staff="1" tstamp="1" dur="1m+1"/>
                  </mei:measure>
               	  <mei:measure n="5">
                     <mei:staff n="1">
                        <mei:layer n="1">
                           <mei:note pname="g" oct="5" dur="8" stem.dir="down"/>
                           <mei:rest dur="8"/>
                           <mei:rest dur="8"/>
                        </mei:layer>
                     </mei:staff>
                  </mei:measure>
                  <mei:measure n="5">
                     <mei:staff n="1">
                        <mei:layer n="1">
                           <mei:mrest/>
                        </mei:layer>
                     </mei:staff>
                  </mei:measure>
                  <mei:measure n="6">
                     <mei:staff n="1">
                        <mei:layer n="1">
                           <mei:note pname="b" oct="5" dur="4" dots="1" stem.dir="down"/>
                        </mei:layer>
                     </mei:staff>
                     <mei:slur staff="1" tstamp="1" dur="2m+3"/>
                  </mei:measure>
                  <mei:measure n="7">
                     <mei:staff n="1">
                        <mei:layer n="1">
                           <mei:note pname="c" oct="6" dur="4" dots="1" stem.dir="down"/>
                        </mei:layer>
                     </mei:staff>
                  </mei:measure>
                  <mei:measure n="8">
                     <mei:staff n="1">
                        <mei:layer n="1">
                           <mei:beam>
                              <mei:note pname="b" oct="5" dur="8" stem.dir="down"/>
                              <mei:note pname="g" oct="5" dur="8" stem.dir="down"/>
                              <mei:note pname="e" oct="5" dur="8" stem.dir="down"/>
                           </mei:beam>
                        </mei:layer>
                     </mei:staff>
                  </mei:measure>
                  <mei:measure n="9">
                     <mei:staff n="1">
                        <mei:layer n="1">
                           <mei:note pname="d" oct="5" dur="4" dots="1" stem.dir="down"/>
                        </mei:layer>
                     </mei:staff>
                     <mei:slur staff="1" tstamp="1" dur="1m+1"/>
                     <mei:hairpin form="dim" staff="1" tstamp="1" dur="1m+1"/>
                  </mei:measure>
                  <mei:measure n="10">
                     <mei:staff n="1">
                        <mei:layer n="1">
                           <mei:note pname="c" oct="5" dur="4" dots="1" stem.dir="down"/>
                        </mei:layer>
                     </mei:staff>
                     <mei:slur staff="1" tstamp="1" dur="1m+1"/>
                  </mei:measure>
                  <mei:measure n="11">
                     <mei:staff n="1">
                        <mei:layer n="1">
                           <mei:note pname="c" oct="5" dur="4" dots="1" stem.dir="down" accid="n"/>
                        </mei:layer>
                     </mei:staff>
                     <mei:dynam staff="1" tstamp="0">fp</mei:dynam>
                     <mei:slur staff="1" tstamp="1" dur="1m+1"/>
                     <mei:hairpin form="dim" staff="1" tstamp="1" dur="4"/>
                  </mei:measure>
                  <mei:measure n="12">
                     <mei:staff n="1">
                        <mei:layer n="1">
                           <mei:beam>
                              <mei:note pname="b" oct="4" dur="16" stem.dir="down"/>
                              <mei:note pname="d" oct="5" dur="16" stem.dir="down" accid="s"/>
                              <mei:note pname="f" oct="5" dur="16" stem.dir="down"/>
                              <mei:note pname="a" oct="5" dur="16" stem.dir="down"/>
                              <mei:note pname="g" oct="5" dur="16" stem.dir="down"/>
                              <mei:note pname="f" oct="5" dur="16" stem.dir="down"/>
                            </mei:beam>
                        </mei:layer>
                     </mei:staff>
                     <mei:slur staff="1" tstamp="1" dur="1m+1"/>
                  </mei:measure>
                  <mei:measure n="13">
                     <mei:staff n="1">
                        <mei:layer n="1">
                           <mei:note pname="e" oct="5" dur="8" stem.dir="down"/>
                           <mei:rest dur="8"/>
                           <mei:rest dur="8"/>
                        </mei:layer>
                     </mei:staff>
                  </mei:measure>
               </mei:section>
            </mei:score>
         </mei:mdiv>
      </notatedMusic>
   </figure>
</div>
Show full example
 

1.4. Bibliography 

Allorto, R. (2002). Nuova storia della musica. Ricordi, Milan

Beethoven, L. v. (1798/99). Briefwechsel. Gesamtausgabe, Band 1 Ludwig van Beethoven an Nikolaus Zmeskall in ?Wien, 1798/99. Ed. Brandenburg, S.

Beethoven, L. v. (1809). Briefwechsel. Gesamtausgabe. Band 2 Beethoven an Breitkopf und Härtel in Leipzig, Vien am 3ten AugustMonath 1809; Ludwig van Beethoven an Breitkopf und Härtel in LeipzigWien, kurz nach dem 26. Juli 1809 Ed. Brandenburg, S.

Gaffurius, F. (1496). Practica Musicae, Liber Primus. Facsimile available at: IMSLP

Prout, E. (1899). The orchestra.