Text Encoding Initiative
10. Omissions, Deletions, and Additions
In addition to correcting or normalizing words and phrases, editors and transcribers may also supply missing material, omit material, or transcribe material deleted or crossed out in the source. In addition, some material may be particularly hard to transcribe because it is hard to make out on the page. The following elements may be used to record such phenomena:
The following elements are provided for for simple editorial interventions.then it might be felt desirable to correct the obvious error, but at the same time to record the deletion of the superfluous second for, thus:
The following elements are provided for <del hand="LB">for</del> simple editorial interventions.The attribute value LB on the hand attribute indicates that ‘LB’ corrected the duplication of for.
The following elements provided for for simple editorial interventions.(i.e. if the verb had been inadvertently dropped) then the corrected text might read:
The following elements <add hand="LB">are</add> provided for <del hand="LB">for</del> simple editorial interventions.The attribute value LB on the hand attribute indicates that ‘LB’ corrected the duplication of for.
These elements are not limited to changes made by an editor; they can also be used to record authorial changes in manuscripts. A manuscript in which the author has first written ‘How it galls me, what a galling shadow’, then crossed out the word galls and inserted dogs might be encoded thus:
How it <del hand="DHL" type="overstrike">galls</del> <add hand="DHL" place="supralinear">dogs</add> me, what a galling shadow
One hundred & twenty good regulars joined to me <unclear><gap reason="indecipherable"/></unclear> & instantly, would aid me signally <add hand="ed">in?</add> an enterprise against Wilmington.
The <del> element marks material which is transcribed as part of the electronic text despite being marked as deleted, while <gap> marks the location of material which is omitted from the electronic text, whether it is legible or not. A language corpus, for example, might omit long quotations in foreign languages:
<p> ... An example of a list appearing in a fief ledger of <name type="place">Koldinghus</name> <date>1611/12</date> is given below. It shows cash income from a sale of honey.</p> <q><gap desc="quotation from ledger" reason="in Danish"/></q> <p>A description of the overall structure of the account is once again ... </p>
<p>At the bottom of your screen below the mode line is the <term>minibuffer</term>. This is the area where Emacs echoes the commands you enter and where you specify filenames for Emacs to find, values for search and replace, and so on. <gap desc="diagram of Emacs screen" reason="graphic"/> </p>