Text Encoding Initiative
19. Front and Back Matter
For many purposes, particularly in older texts, the preliminary material such as title pages, prefatory epistles, etc., may provide very useful additional linguistic or social information. P3 provides a set of recommendations for distinguishing the textual elements most commonly encountered in front matter, which are summarized here.
The start of a title page should be marked with the element <titlePage>. All text contained on the page should be transcribed and tagged with the appropriate element from the following list:
Typeface distinctions should be marked with the rend attribute when necessary, as described above. Very detailed description of the letter spacing and sizing used in ornamental titles is not as yet provided for by the Guidelines. Changes of language should be marked by appropriate use of the lang attribute or the <foreign> element, as necessary. Names, wherever they appear, should be tagged using the <name>, as elsewhere.
<titlePage rend="Roman"> <docTitle><titlePart type="main"> PARADISE REGAIN'D. A POEM In IV <hi>BOOKS</hi>. </titlePart> <titlePart> To which is added <title>SAMSON AGONISTES</title>. </titlePart> </docTitle> <byline>The Author <docAuthor>JOHN MILTON</docAuthor></byline> <docImprint><name>LONDON</name>, Printed by <name>J.M.</name> for <name>John Starkey</name> at the <name>Mitre</name> in <name>Fleetstreet</name>, near <name>Temple-Bar.</name> </docImprint> <docDate>MDCLXXI</docDate> </titlePage>
<titlePage> <docTitle><titlePart type="main"> Lives of the Queens of England, from the Norman Conquest;</titlePart> <titlePart type="sub">with anecdotes of their courts. </titlePart></docTitle> <titlePart>Now first published from Official Records and other authentic documents private as well as public.</titlePart> <docEdition>New edition, with corrections and additions</docEdition> <byline>By <docAuthor>Agnes Strickland</docAuthor></byline> <epigraph> <q>The treasures of antiquity laid up in old historic rolls, I opened.</q> <bibl>BEAUMONT</bibl> </epigraph> <docImprint>Philadelphia: Blanchard and Lea</docImprint> <docDate>1860.</docDate> </titlePage>
Major blocks of text within the front matter should be marked as <div> or <div1> elements; the following suggested values for the type attribute may be used to distinguish various common types of prefatory matter:
Like any text division, those in front matter may contain low level structural or non-structural elements as described elsewhere. They will generally begin with a heading or title of some kind which should be tagged using the <head> element. Epistles will contain the following additional elements:
Epistles which appear elsewhere in a text will, of course, contain these same elements.
<div type="dedication"> <head>To the Right Honourable <name>JOHN Lord Viscount BRACLY</name>, Son and Heir apparent to the Earl of Bridgewater, &c.</head> <salute>MY LORD,</salute> <p>THis <hi>Poem</hi>, which receiv'd its first occasion of Birth from your Self, and others of your Noble Family .... and as in this representation your attendant <name>Thyrsis</name>, so now in all reall expression <closer> <salute>Your faithfull, and most humble servant</salute> <signed><name>H. LAWES.</name></signed> </closer> </div>
Because of variations in publishing practice, back matter can contain virtually any of the elements listed above for front matter, and the same elements should be used where this is so. Additionally, back matter may contain the following types of matter within the <back> element. Like the structural divisions of the body, these should be marked as <div> or <div1> elements, and distinguished by the following suggested values of the type attribute: