Text Encoding Initiative

6. Marking Highlighted Phrases

6.1. Changes of Typeface, etc.

Highlighted words or phrases are those made visibly different from the rest of the text, typically by a change of type font, handwriting style, or ink color, intended to draw the reader's attention to them.

The global rend attribute can be attached to any element, and used wherever necessary to specify details of the highlighting used for it. For example, a heading rendered in bold might be tagged head rend="bold", and one in italic head rend="italic".

It is not always possible or desirable to interpret the reasons for such changes of rendering in a text. In such cases, the element <hi> may be used to mark a sequence of highlighted text without making any claim as to its status.

marks a word or phrase as graphically distinct from the surrounding text, for reasons concerning which no claim is made.

In the following example, the use of a distinct typeface for the subheading and for the included name are recorded but not interpreted:

<p><hi rend="gothic">And this Indenture further witnesseth</hi>
that the said <hi rend="italic">Walter Shandy</hi>, merchant,
in consideration of the said intended marriage ...</p>

Alternatively, where the cause for the highlighting can be identified with confidence, a number of other, more specific, elements are available.

marks words or phrases which are stressed or emphasized for linguistic or rhetorical effect.
identifies a word or phrase as belonging to some language other than that of the surrounding text.
marks words or phrases mentioned, not used.
contains a single-word, multi-word or symbolic designation which is regarded as a technical term.
contains the title of a work, whether article, book, journal, or series, including any alternative titles or subtitles. Attributes include:

indicates whether this is the title of an article, book, journal, series, or unpublished material. Legal values are: m for monographic title (book, collection, or other item published as a distinct item, including single volumes of multi-volume works); s (series title); j (journal title); u for title of unpublished material (including theses and dissertations unless published by a commercial press); a for analytic title (article, poem, or other item published as part of a larger item).
classifies the title according to some convenient typology. Sample values include: abbreviated, main, subordinate (for subtitles and titles of parts), and parallel (for alternate titles, often in another language, by which the work is also known).

Some features (notably quotations and glosses) may be found in a text either marked by highlighting, or with quotation marks. In either case, the elements <q> and <gloss> (as discussed in the following section) should be used. If the rendition is to be recorded, use the global rend attribute.

As an example of the elements defined here, consider the following sentence:

On the one hand the Nibelungenlied is associated with the new rise of romance of twelfth-century France, the romans d'antiquité;, the romances of Chrétien de Troyes, and the German adaptations of these works by Heinrich van Veldeke, Hartmann von Aue, and Wolfram von Eschenbach.
Interpreting the role of the highlighting, the sentence might look like this:
<p>On the one hand the <title>Nibelungenlied</title> is associated
with the new rise of romance of twelfth-century France, the
<foreign>romans d'antiquit&eacute;</foreign>, the romances of
Chr&eacute;tien de Troyes, ...</p>
Describing only the appearance of the original, it might look like this:
<p>On the one hand the <hi rend="italic">Nibelungenlied</hi>
is associated with the new rise of romance of twelfth-century
France, the <hi rend="italic">romans
d'antiquit&eacute;</hi>, the romances of
Chr&eacute;tien de Troyes, ...</p>

6.2. Quotations and Related Features

Like changes of typeface, quotation marks are conventionally used to denote several different features within a text, of which the most frequent is quotation. When possible, we recommend that the underlying feature be tagged, rather than the simple fact that quotation marks appear in the text, using the following elements:

contains a quotation or apparent quotation --- a representation of speech or thought marked as being quoted from someone else (whether in fact quoted or not); in narrative, the words are usually those of a character or speaker; in dictionaries, <q> may be used to mark real or contrived examples of usage. Attributes include:

may be used to indicate whether the quoted matter is spoken or thought, or to characterize it more finely. Sample values include: spoken (for representation of direct speech, usually marked by quotation marks) and thought (for representation of thought, e.g. internal monologue).
identifies the speaker of a piece of direct speech.

marks words or phrases mentioned, not used.
contains a word or phrase for which the author or narrator indicates a disclaiming of responsibility, for example by the use of scare quotes or italics.
marks a word or phrase which provides a gloss or definition for some other word or phrase. Attributes include:

identifies the associated word or phrase.

Here is a simple example of a quotation:

<p>Few dictionary makers are likely to forget
Dr. Johnson's description of the
lexicographer as <q>a harmless drudge.</q></p>

To record how a quotation was printed (for example, in-line or set off as a display or block quotation), the rend attribute should be used. This may also be used to indicate the kind of quotation marks used.

Direct speech interrupted by a narrator can be represented simply by ending the quotation and beginning it again after the interruption, as in the following example:

<p><q>Who-e debel you?</q> &mdash; he at last said &mdash; <q>you
no speak-e, damme, I kill-e.</q>  And so saying, the lighted
tomahawk began flourishing about me in the dark.</p>
If it is important to convey the idea that the two <q> elements together reproduce a single speech, the linking attributes next and prev may be used, as described in section 8.3. Linking Attributes.

Quotations may be accompanied by a reference to the source or speaker, using the who attribute, whether or not the source is given in the text, as in the following example:

<q who="Wilson">Spaulding, he came down into the office just this
day eight weeks with this very paper in his hand, and he
says:&mdash;<q who="Spaulding">I wish to the Lord, Mr. Wilson, that
I was a red-headed man.</q></q>
This example also demonstrates how quotations may be embedded within other quotations: one speaker (Wilson) quotes another speaker (Spaulding).

The creator of the electronic text must decide whether quotation marks are replaced by the tags or whether the tags are added and the quotation marks kept. If the quotation marks are removed from the text, the rend attribute may be used to record the way in which they were rendered in the copy text.

As with highlighting, it is not always possible and may not be considered desirable to interpret the function of quotation marks in a text in this way. In such cases, the tag <hi rend="quoted"> might be used to mark quoted text without making any claim as to its status.

6.3. Foreign Words or Expressions

Words or phrases which are not in the main language of the texts may be tagged as such in one of two ways. If the word or phrase is already tagged for some reason, the element indicated should bear a value for the global lang attribute indicating the language used. Where there is no applicable element, the element <foreign> may be used, again using the lang attribute. For example:

<p>John has real <foreign lang="fra">savoir-faire</foreign>.</p>
<p>Have you read <title lang="deu">Die Dreigroschenoper</title>?</p>
<p><mentioned lang="fra">Savoir-faire</mentioned> is French for know-how.</p>
<p>The court issued a writ of <term lang="lat">mandamus</term>.</p>

As these examples show, the <foreign> element should not be used to tag foreign words if some other more specific element such as <title>, <mentioned>, or <term> applies. The global lang attribute may be attached to any element to show that it uses some other language than that of the surrounding text.

Up: Contents Previous: 5. Page and Line Numbers Next: 7. Notes

Date: (revised October 2004) Author: Lou Burnard (revised SPQR).
Copyright TEI 1995