TEI: A Digital Comparative Edition and Translation of the Shorter Chinese Saṃyukta Āgama

For inclusion in the TEI Application Page

Form posted from TEI website on 2006-8-4
Religious TextsMultilingual27 April 2008Chris Ruotolo Updated as per email from Marcus Bingenheimer 20 September 2007Chris Ruotolo Converted to TEI P5 4 Aug 2006

Dr. Marcus BingenheimerCreated using newproj webform

  • Host: Dharma Drum Buddhist College
  • Other institutions involved: Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation for International Scholarly Exchange
  • URL:

Description: The Bieyi za ahan jing 別譯雜阿含經 (BZA) in 16 fascicles consists of 364 sutras and belongs to the early Chinese Buddhist texts collectively called Ahan (Āgama) sutras 阿含經. Āgama literature constitutes the earliest stratum of Buddhist literature. The originals (in Buddhist Sanskrit) are largely lost, only a few fragments have survived. Next to the Chinese tradition only the Theravāda tradition has preserved a comprehensive set of these sutras in Pāli. Generally, all of the 364 short sutras contained the BZA have at least one parallel in Chinese and one Pāli parallel (with commentary). Often there are several parallels in Chinese and Pāli, sometimes even a fragment in Buddhist Sanskrit has survived. The aim of the project is to create a digital comparative edition of the BZA, which connects these text-clusters.

The end-user selects the cluster s/he wants to view online and can further select which of the texts in the cluster to display, provisionally in a three column layout.

The Project has started in 2005 and is expected to finish all clusters in 2008.

Implementation description: The sutra texts are encoded in TEI P5 with a DTD/Schema that restricts some content models, but does not add any elements. They should validate with any plain-vanilla TEI P5 Schema. The source files for each text are available on the website.

Middleware between the source files and the user application is eXist (on Tomcat 5.5) with XSLT and XQuery, from which the user generates a view of a cluster in her browser.

Other Related Resources:

The markup manual with the documentation is available on request. For posters, presentations, articles connected with the BZA, etc.:

Access : The copyright for the Chinese texts is with the Chung-hua Institute. The Pāli text are used under an agreement with the Vipassana Research Institute at Dhammagiri, India. The Sanskrit texts were made available by Fumio Enomoto.


Dr. Marcus BingenheimerDharma Drum Buddhist CollegeNo. 2-6 XishihuJinshan 20842Taipei CountyTAIWAN RoCEmail: m.bingenheimer AT gmail.com