TEI Lite: Encoding for Interchange: an introduction to the TEI
Final revised edition for TEI P5
Lou Burnard
C. M. Sperberg-McQueen
August 2012

Prefatory note

TEI Lite was the name adopted for what the TEI editors originally conceived of as a simple demonstration of how the TEI (Text Encoding Initiative) encoding scheme might be adopted to meet 90% of the needs of 90% of the TEI user community. In retrospect, it was predictable that many people should imagine TEI Lite to be all there is to TEI, or find TEI Lite to be far too heavy for their needs.

The original TEI Lite (1996) was based largely on observations of existing and previous practice in the encoding of texts, particularly as manifest in the collections of the Oxford Text Archive and other collections of the period. It is therefore unsurprising that it seems to have become, if not a de facto standard, at least a common point of departure for electronic text centres and encoding projects world wide. Maybe the fact that we actually produced this shortish, readable, manual for it also helped.

Early adopters of TEI Lite included a number of ‘Electronic Text Centers’ and digital library initiatives. It was also adopted as the basis for some early TEI-conformant authoring systems, and as the basis for introductory tutorials, many of them in languages other than English (see further the list of legacy versions at http://www.tei-c.org/Vault/P4/Lite/).

In 2002, following the publication of TEI P4, the XML version of the TEI Guidelines, which uses the generation of TEI Lite as an example of the TEI modification mechanism, the opportunity was taken to produce a lightly revised XML-conformant version. In 2006, a more substantially revised version based on TEI P5 was produced; this reflected the many changes between TEI P4 and TEI P5, but was not otherwise significantly different. In 2012, the TEI Technical Council, decided that a final revision should be undertaken to ensure that the documentation remained consistent with the latest (2.1) release of TEI P5. This version uses a recently added mechanism in the TEI customization architecture, which permits a customization to define only the TEI elements to be included in a schema, rather than the elements to be excluded from it. As such it is probably more resilient to change than earlier versions.

Lou Burnard, August 2012

Table of contents

This document provides an introduction to the recommendations of the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), by describing a specific subset of the full TEI encoding scheme. The scheme documented here can be used to encode a wide variety of commonly encountered textual features, in such a way as to maximize the usability of electronic transcriptions and to facilitate their interchange among scholars using different computer systems. It is fully compatible with the full TEI scheme, as defined by TEI document P5, Guidelines for Electronic Text Encoding and Interchange, as of February 2006, and available from the TEI Consortium website at http://www.tei-c.org/.

1 Introduction

The Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) Guidelines are addressed to anyone who wants to interchange information stored in an electronic form. They emphasize the interchange of textual information, but other forms of information such as images and sound are also addressed. The Guidelines are equally applicable in the creation of new resources and in the interchange of existing ones.

The Guidelines provide a means of making explicit certain features of a text in such a way as to aid the processing of that text by computer software running on different machines. This process of making explicit we call markup or encoding. Any textual representation on a computer uses some form of markup; the TEI came into being partly because of the enormous variety of mutually incomprehensible encoding schemes currently besetting scholarship, and partly because of the expanding range of scholarly uses now being identified for texts in electronic form.

The TEI Guidelines describe an encoding scheme which can be expressed using a number of different formal languages. The first editions of the Guidelines used the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML); since 2002, this has been replaced by the use of the Extensible Markup Language (XML). These markup languages have in common the definition of text in terms of elements and attributes, and rules governing their appearance within a text. The TEI's use of XML is ambitious in its complexity and generality, but it is fundamentally no different from that of any other XML markup scheme, and so any general-purpose XML-aware software is able to process TEI-conformant texts.

Since 2001, the TEI has been a community initiative supported by an international membership consortium. It was originally an international research project sponsored by the Association for Computers and the Humanities, the Association for Computational Linguistics, and the Association for Literary and Linguistic Computing, with substantial funding over its first five years from the U.S. National Endowment for the Humanities, Directorate General XIII of the Commission of the European Communities, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada and others. The Guidelines were first published in May 1994, after six years of development involving many hundreds of scholars from different academic disciplines worldwide. During the years that followed, the Guidelines became increasingly influential in the development of the digital library, in the language industries, and even in the development of the World Wide Web itself. The TEI Consortium was set up in January 2001, and a year later produced an edition of the Guidelines entirely revised for XML compatibility. In 2004, it set about a major revision of the Guidelines to take full advantage of new schema languages, the first release of which appeared in 2005. This revision of the TEI Lite document conforms to version 2.1 of this most recent edition of the Guidelines, TEI P5, released in June 2012.

At the outset of its work, the overall goals of the TEI were defined by the closing statement of a planning conference held at Vassar College, N.Y., in November, 1987; these ‘Poughkeepsie Principles’ were further elaborated in a series of design documents. The Guidelines, say these design documents, should:

The world of scholarship is large and diverse. For the Guidelines to have wide acceptability, it was important to ensure that:

  1. the common core of textual features be easily shared;
  2. additional specialist features be easy to add to (or remove from) a text;
  3. multiple parallel encodings of the same feature should be possible;
  4. the richness of markup should be user-defined, with a very small minimal requirement;
  5. adequate documentation of the text and its encoding should be provided.

The present document describes a manageable selection from the extensive set of elements and recommendations resulting from those design goals, which is called TEI Lite.

In selecting from the several hundred elements defined by the full TEI scheme, we have tried to identify a useful ‘starter set’, comprising the elements which almost every user should know about. Experience working with TEI Lite will be invaluable in understanding the full TEI scheme and in knowing how to integrate specialized parts of it into the general TEI framework.

Our goals in defining this subset may be summarized as follows:

The reader may judge our success in meeting these goals for him or herself.

Although we have tried to make this document self-contained, as suits a tutorial text, the reader should be aware that it does not cover every detail of the TEI encoding scheme. All of the elements described here are fully documented in the TEI Guidelines themselves, which should be consulted for authoritative reference information on these, and on the many others which are not described here. Some basic knowledge of XML is assumed.

2 A Short Example

We begin with a short example, intended to show what happens when a passage of prose is typed into a computer by someone with little sense of the purpose of mark-up, or the potential of electronic texts. In an ideal world, such output might be generated by a very accurate optical scanner. It attempts to be faithful to the appearance of the printed text, by retaining the original line breaks, by introducing blanks to represent the layout of the original headings and page breaks, and so forth. Where characters not available on the keyboard are needed (such as the accented letter a in faàl or the long dash), it attempts to mimic their appearance.

                                CHAPTER 38

READER, I married him. A quiet wedding we had: he and I, the par-
son and clerk, were alone present. When we got back from church, I
went into the kitchen of the manor-house, where Mary was cooking
the dinner, and John cleaning the knives, and I said --
  'Mary, I have been married to Mr Rochester this morning.' The
housekeeper and her husband were of that decent, phlegmatic
order of people, to whom one may at any time safely communicate a
remarkable piece of news without incurring the danger of having
one's ears pierced by some shrill ejaculation and subsequently stunned
by a torrent of wordy wonderment. Mary did look up, and she did
stare at me; the ladle with which she was basting a pair of chickens
roasting at the fire, did for some three minutes hang suspended in air,
and for the same space of time John's knives also had rest from the
polishing process; but Mary, bending again over the roast, said only --
   'Have you, miss? Well, for sure!'
   A short time after she pursued, 'I seed you go out with the master,
but I didn't know you were gone to church to be wed'; and she
basted away. John, when I turned to him, was grinning from ear to
ear.
   'I telled Mary how it would be,' he said: 'I knew what Mr Ed-
ward' (John was an old servant, and had known his master when he
was the cadet of the house, therefore he often gave him his Christian
name) -- 'I knew what Mr Edward would do; and I was certain he
would not wait long either: and he's done right, for aught I know. I
wish you joy, miss!' and he politely pulled his forelock.
   'Thank you, John. Mr Rochester told me to give you and Mary
this.'
   I put into his hand a five-pound note.  Without waiting to hear
more, I left the kitchen. In passing the door of that sanctum some time
after, I caught the words --
   'She'll happen do better for him nor ony o' t' grand ladies.' And
again, 'If she ben't one o' th' handsomest, she's noan faa\l, and varry
good-natured; and i' his een she's fair beautiful, onybody may see
that.'
   I wrote to Moor House and to Cambridge immediately, to say what
I had done: fully explaining also why I had thus acted. Diana and

                            474

                 JANE EYRE                      475

Mary approved the step unreservedly. Diana announced that she
would just give me time to get over the honeymoon, and then she
would come and see me.
   'She had better not wait till then, Jane,' said Mr Rochester, when I
read her letter to him; 'if she does, she will be too late, for our honey-
moon will shine our life long: its beams will only fade over your
grave or mine.'
   How St John received the news I don't know: he never answered
the letter in which I communicated it: yet six months after he wrote
to me, without, however, mentioning Mr Rochester's name or allud-
ing to my marriage. His letter was then calm, and though very serious,
kind. He has maintained a regular, though not very frequent correspond-
ence ever since: he hopes I am happy, and trusts I am not of those who
live without God in the world, and only mind earthly things.

      

This transcription suffers from a number of shortcomings:

We now present the same passage, as it might be encoded using the TEI Guidelines. As we shall see, there are many ways in which this encoding could be extended, but as a minimum, the TEI approach allows us to represent the following distinctions:
  • Paragraph and chapter divisions are now marked explicitly.
  • Apostrophes are distinguished from quotation marks; direct speech is explicitly marked.
  • The accented letter and the long dash are correctly represented.
  • Page divisions have been marked with an empty pb element alone.
  • The lineation of the original has not been retained and words broken by typographic accident at the end of a line have been re-assembled without comment.
  • For convenience of proof reading, a new line has been introduced at the start of each paragraph, but the indentation is removed.
<pb n="474"/>
<div type="chaptern="38">
 <p>Reader, I married him. A quiet wedding we had: he and I, the parson and clerk, were alone
   present. When we got back from church, I went into the kitchen of the manor-house, where
   Mary was cooking the dinner, and John cleaning the knives, and I said —</p>
 <p>
  <q>Mary, I have been married to Mr Rochester this morning.</q> The housekeeper and her
   husband were of that decent, phlegmatic order of people, to whom one may at any time safely
   communicate a remarkable piece of news without incurring the danger of having one's ears
   pierced by some shrill ejaculation and subsequently stunned by a torrent of wordy
   wonderment. Mary did look up, and she did stare at me; the ladle with which she was basting
   a pair of chickens roasting at the fire, did for some three minutes hang suspended in air,
   and for the same space of time John's knives also had rest from the polishing process; but
   Mary, bending again over the roast, said only —</p>
 <p>
  <q>Have you, miss? Well, for sure!</q>
 </p>
 <p>A short time after she pursued, <q>I seed you go out with the master, but I didn't know
     you were gone to church to be wed</q>; and she basted away. John, when I turned to him, was
   grinning from ear to ear. <q>I telled Mary how it would be,</q> he said: <q>I knew what Mr
     Edward</q> (John was an old servant, and had known his master when he was the cadet of the
   house, therefore he often gave him his Christian name) — <q>I knew what Mr Edward would do;
     and I was certain he would not wait long either: and he's done right, for aught I know. I
     wish you joy, miss!</q> and he politely pulled his forelock.</p>
 <p>
  <q>Thank you, John. Mr Rochester told me to give you and Mary this.</q>
 </p>
 <p>I put into his hand a five-pound note. Without waiting to hear more, I left the kitchen.
   In passing the door of that sanctum some time after, I caught the words —</p>
 <p>
  <q>She'll happen do better for him nor ony o' t' grand ladies.</q> And again, <q>If she
     ben't one o' th' handsomest, she's noan faàl, and varry good-natured; and i' his een she's
     fair beautiful, onybody may see that.</q>
 </p>
 <p>I wrote to Moor House and to Cambridge immediately, to say what I had done: fully
   explaining also why I had thus acted. Diana and <pb n="475"/> Mary approved the step
   unreservedly. Diana announced that she would just give me time to get over the honeymoon,
   and then she would come and see me.</p>
 <p>
  <q>She had better not wait till then, Jane,</q> said Mr Rochester, when I read her letter
   to him; <q>if she does, she will be too late, for our honeymoon will shine our life long:
     its beams will only fade over your grave or mine.</q>
 </p>
 <p>How St John received the news I don't know: he never answered the letter in which I
   communicated it: yet six months after he wrote to me, without, however, mentioning Mr
   Rochester's name or alluding to my marriage. His letter was then calm, and though very
   serious, kind. He has maintained a regular, though not very frequent correspondence ever
   since: he hopes I am happy, and trusts I am not of those who live without God in the world,
   and only mind earthly things.</p>
</div>

This particular encoding represents a set of choices or priorities. As a trivial example, note that in the second example, end-of-line hyphenation has been silently removed. Conceivably Brontë (or her printer) intended the word ‘honeymoon’ to appear as ‘honey-moon’ on its second appearance, though this seems unlikely: our decision to focus on Brontë's text, rather than on the printing of it in this particular edition, makes it impossible to be certain. This is an instance of the fundamental selectivity of any encoding. An encoding makes explicit only those textual features of importance to the encoder. It is not difficult to think of ways in which the encoding of even this short passage might readily be extended. For example:

TEI-recommended ways of carrying out most of these are described in the remainder of this document. The TEI scheme as a whole also provides for an enormous range of other possibilities, of which we cite only a few:

For recommendations on these and many other possibilities, the full Guidelines should be consulted.

3 The Structure of a TEI Text

All TEI-conformant texts contain (a) a TEI header (marked up as a teiHeader element) and (b) the transcription of the text proper (marked up as a text element). These two elements are combined together to form a single TEI element, which must be declared within the TEI namespace1.

The TEI header provides information analogous to that provided by the title page of a printed text. It has up to four parts: a bibliographic description of the machine-readable text, a description of the way it has been encoded, a non-bibliographic description of the text (a text profile), and a revision history. The header is described in more detail in section 19 The Electronic Title Page.

A TEI text may be unitary (a single work) or composite (a collection of single works, such as an anthology). In either case, the text may have an optional front or back. In between is the body of the text, which, in the case of a composite text, may consist of groups, each containing more groups or texts.

A unitary text will be encoded using an overall structure like this:
<TEI xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0">
 <teiHeader>
<!-- [ TEI Header information ] -->
 </teiHeader>
 <text>
  <front>
<!-- [ front matter ... ] -->
  </front>
  <body>
<!-- [ body of text ... ] -->
  </body>
  <back>
<!-- [ back matter ... ] -->
  </back>
 </text>
</TEI>
A composite text also has an optional front and back. In between occur one or more groups of texts, each with its own optional front and back matter. A composite text will thus be encoded using an overall structure like this:
<TEI xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0">
 <teiHeader>
<!--[ header information for the composite ]-->
 </teiHeader>
 <text>
  <front>
<!--[ front matter for the composite ]-->
  </front>
  <group>
   <text>
    <front>
<!--[ front matter of first text ]-->
    </front>
    <body>
<!--[ body of first text ]-->
    </body>
    <back>
<!--[ back matter of first text ]-->
    </back>
   </text>
   <text>
    <front>
<!--[ front matter of second text]-->
    </front>
    <body>
<!--[ body of second text ]-->
    </body>
    <back>
<!--[ back matter of second text ]-->
    </back>
   </text>
<!--[ more texts or groups of texts here ]-->
  </group>
  <back>
<!--[ back matter for the composite ]-->
  </back>
 </text>
</TEI>
It is also possible to define a composite of complete TEI texts, each with its own header. Such a collection is known as a TEI corpus, and may itself have a header:
<teiCorpus xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0">
 <teiHeader>
<!--[header information for the corpus]-->
 </teiHeader>
 <TEI>
  <teiHeader>
<!--[header information for first text]-->
  </teiHeader>
  <text>
<!--[first text in corpus]-->
  </text>
 </TEI>
 <TEI>
  <teiHeader>
<!--[header information for second text]-->
  </teiHeader>
  <text>
<!--[second text in corpus]-->
  </text>
 </TEI>
</teiCorpus>
It is also possible to create a composite of corpora -- that is, one teiCorpus element may contain many nested teiCorpus elements rather than many nested TEI elements, to any depth considered necessary.

In the remainder of this document, we discuss chiefly simple text structures. The discussion in each case consists of a short list of relevant TEI elements with a brief definition of each, followed by definitions for any attributes specific to that element, and a reference to any classes of which the element is a member. These references are linked to full specifications for each object, as given in the TEI Guidelines. In most cases, short examples are also given.

For example, here are the elements discussed so far:

4 Encoding the Body

As indicated above, a simple TEI document at the textual level consists of the following elements:

Elements specific to front and back matter are described below in section 18 Front and Back Matter. In this section we discuss the elements making up the body of a text.

4.1 Text Division Elements

The body of a prose text may be just a series of paragraphs, or these paragraphs may be grouped together into chapters, sections, subsections, etc. Each paragraph is tagged using the p tag. The div element is used to represent any such grouping of paragraphs.

  • p (paragraph) marks paragraphs in prose.
  • div (text division) contains a subdivision of the front, body, or back of a text.

The type attribute on the div element may be used to supply a conventional name for this category of text division, or otherwise distinguish them. Typical values might be ‘book’, ‘chapter’, ‘section’, ‘part’, ‘poem’, ‘song’, etc. For a given project, it will usually be advisable to define and adhere to a specific list of such values.

A div element may itself contain further, nested, divs, thus mimicking the traditional structure of a book, which can be decomposed hierarchically into units such as parts, containing chapters, containing sections, and so on. TEI texts in general conform to this simple hierarchic model.

The xml:id attribute may be used to supply a unique identifier for the division, which may be used for cross references or other links to it, such as a commentary, as further discussed in section 8 Cross References and Links. It is often useful to provide an xml:id attribute for every major structural unit in a text, and to derive its values in some systematic way, for example by appending a section number to a short code for the title of the work in question, as in the examples below. It is particularly useful to supply such identifiers if the resource concerned is to be made available over the web, since they make it much easier for other web-based applications to link directly to the corresponding parts of your text.

The n attribute may be used to supply (additionally or alternatively) a short mnemonic name or number for a division, or any other element. If a conventional form of reference or abbreviation for the parts of a work already exists (such as the book/chapter/verse pattern of Biblical citations), the n attribute is the place to record it; unlike the identifier supplied by xml:id, it does not need to be unique.

The xml:lang attribute may be used to specify the language of the division. Languages are identified by an internationally defined code, as further discussed in section 6.3 Foreign Words or Expressions below.

The rend attribute may be used to supply information about the rendition (appearance) of a division, or any other element, as further discussed in section 6 Marking Highlighted Phrases below. As with the type attribute, a project will often find it useful to predefine the possible values for this attribute, but TEI Lite does not constrain it in anyway.

These four attributes, xml:id, n, xml:lang, and rend are so widely useful that they are allowed on any element in any TEI schema: they are global attributes. Other global attributes defined in the TEI Lite scheme are discussed in section 8.3 Special kinds of Linking.

The value of every xml:id attribute should be unique within a document. One simple way of ensuring that this is so is to make it reflect the hierarchic structure of the document. For example, Smith's Wealth of Nations as first published consists of five books, each of which is divided into chapters, while some chapters are further subdivided into parts. We might define xml:id values for this structure as follows:
<body>
 <div xml:id="WN1n="Itype="book">
  <div xml:id="WN101n="I.1type="chapter">
<!-- ... -->
  </div>
  <div xml:id="WN102n="I.2type="chapter">
<!-- ... -->
  </div>
<!-- ... -->
  <div xml:id="WN110n="I.10"
   type="chapter">

   <div xml:id="WN1101n="I.10.1"
    type="part">

<!-- ... -->
   </div>
   <div xml:id="WN1102n="I.10.2"
    type="part">

<!-- ... -->
   </div>
  </div>
<!-- ... -->
 </div>
 <div xml:id="WN2n="IItype="book">
<!-- ... -->
 </div>
</body>
A different numbering scheme may be used for xml:id and n attributes: this is often useful where a canonical reference scheme is used which does not tally with the structure of the work. For example, in a novel divided into books each containing chapters, where the chapters are numbered sequentially through the whole work, rather than within each book, one might use a scheme such as the following:
<body>
 <div xml:id="TS01n="1type="volume">
  <div xml:id="TS011n="1type="chapter">
<!-- ... -->
  </div>
  <div xml:id="TS012n="2type="chapter">
<!-- ... -->
  </div>
 </div>
 <div xml:id="TS02n="2type="volume">
  <div xml:id="TS021n="3type="chapter">
<!-- ... -->
  </div>
  <div xml:id="TS022n="4type="chapter">
<!-- ... -->
  </div>
 </div>
</body>
Here the work has two volumes, each containing two chapters. The chapters are numbered conventionally 1 to 4, but the xml:id values specified allow them to be regarded additionally as if they were numbered 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2.

4.2 Headings and Closings

Every div may have a title or heading at its start, and (less commonly) a trailer such as ‘End of Chapter 1’ at its end. The following elements may be used to transcribe them:

  • head (heading) contains any type of heading, for example the title of a section, or the heading of a list, glossary, manuscript description, etc.
  • trailer contains a closing title or footer appearing at the end of a division of a text.

Some other elements which may be necessary at the beginning or ending of text divisions are discussed below in section 18.1.2 Prefatory Matter.

Whether or not headings and trailers are included in a transcription is a matter for the individual transcriber to decide. Where a heading is completely regular (for example ‘Chapter 1’) or may be automatically constructed from attribute values (e.g. <div type="chapter" n="1">), it may be omitted; where it contains otherwise unrecoverable text it should always be included. For example, the start of Hardy's Under the Greenwood Tree might be encoded as follows:
<div xml:id="UGT1n="Wintertype="Part">
 <div xml:id="UGT11n="1type="Chapter">
  <head>Mellstock-Lane</head>
  <p>To dwellers in a wood almost every species of tree ... </p>
 </div>
</div>

4.3 Prose, Verse and Drama

As in the Bronte example above, the paragraphs making up a textual division are tagged with the p tag. In poetic or dramatic texts different tags are needed, to represent verse lines and stanzas in the first case, or individual speeches and stage directions in the second. :

  • l (verse line) contains a single, possibly incomplete, line of verse.
  • lg (line group) contains one or more verse lines functioning as a formal unit, e.g. a stanza, refrain, verse paragraph, etc.
  • sp (speech) contains an individual speech in a performance text, or a passage presented as such in a prose or verse text.
  • speaker contains a specialized form of heading or label, giving the name of one or more speakers in a dramatic text or fragment.
  • stage (stage direction) contains any kind of stage direction within a dramatic text or fragment.
Here, for example, is the start of a poetic text in which verse lines and stanzas are tagged:
<lg n="I">
 <l>I Sing the progresse of a
   deathlesse soule,</l>
 <l>Whom Fate, with God made, but doth not controule,</l>
 <l>Plac'd in
   most shapes; all times before the law</l>
 <l>Yoak'd us, and when, and since, in this I
   sing.</l>
 <l>And the great world to his aged evening;</l>
 <l>From infant morne, through manly
   noone I draw.</l>
 <l>What the gold Chaldee, of silver Persian saw,</l>
 <l>Greeke brass, or
   Roman iron, is in this one;</l>
 <l>A worke t'out weare Seths pillars, bricke and
   stone,</l>
 <l>And (holy writs excepted) made to yeeld to none,</l>
</lg>

Note that the l element marks verse lines, not typographic lines: the original lineation of the first few lines above has not therefore been made explicit by this encoding, and may be lost. The lb element described in section 5 Page and Line Numbers might additionally be used to mark typographic lines if so desired.

Here is the end of a famous dramatic text, in which speeches and stage directions are marked:
<sp>
 <speaker>Vladimir</speaker>
 <p>Pull on your trousers.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
 <speaker>Estragon</speaker>
 <p>You want me to pull off my trousers?</p>
</sp>
<sp>
 <speaker>Vladimir</speaker>
 <p>Pull <emph>on</emph> your trousers.</p>
</sp>
<sp>
 <speaker>Vladimir</speaker>
 <p>
  <stage>(realizing his trousers are down)</stage>.
   True</p>
</sp>
<stage>He pulls up his trousers</stage>
<sp>
 <speaker>Vladimir</speaker>
 <p>Well? Shall we go?</p>
</sp>
<sp>
 <speaker>Estragon</speaker>
 <p>Yes, let's go.</p>
</sp>
<stage>They do not move.</stage>
Note that the stage (stage direction) element can appear either within a speech or between speeches. The sp ("speech") element contains, following an optional speaker element indicating who is speaking, either paragraphs (if the speech is in prose) or verse lines or stanzas as in the next example. In this case, it is quite common to find that verse lines are split between speakers. The easiest way of encoding this is to use the part attribute to indicate that the lines so fragmented are incomplete :
<div type="Actn="I">
 <head>ACT I</head>
 <div type="Scenen="1">
  <head>SCENE I</head>
  <stage rend="italic"> Enter Barnardo and Francisco, two Sentinels, at several doors</stage>
  <sp>
   <speaker>Barn</speaker>
   <l part="Y">Who's there?</l>
  </sp>
  <sp>
   <speaker>Fran</speaker>
   <l>Nay, answer me. Stand and unfold yourself.</l>
  </sp>
  <sp>
   <speaker>Barn</speaker>
   <l part="I">Long live the King!</l>
  </sp>
  <sp>
   <speaker>Fran</speaker>
   <l part="M">Barnardo?</l>
  </sp>
  <sp>
   <speaker>Barn</speaker>
   <l part="F">He.</l>
  </sp>
  <sp>
   <speaker>Fran</speaker>
   <l>You come most carefully upon your hour.</l>
  </sp>
<!-- ... -->
 </div>
</div>
The same mechanism may be applied to stanzas which are divided between two speakers:
<div>
 <sp>
  <speaker>First voice</speaker>
  <lg type="stanzapart="I">
   <l>But why drives on that ship so fast</l>
   <l>Withouten wave or wind?</l>
  </lg>
 </sp>
 <sp>
  <speaker>Second Voice</speaker>
  <lg part="F">
   <l>The air is cut away before.</l>
   <l>And closes from behind.</l>
  </lg>
 </sp>
<!-- ... -->
</div>
The sp element can also be used for dialogue presented in a prose work as if it were drama, as in the next example, which also demonstrates the use of the who attribute to bear a code identifying the speaker of the piece of dialogue concerned:
<div>
 <sp who="#OPI">
  <speaker>The reverend Doctor Opimian</speaker>
  <p>I do not think I have named a single unpresentable fish.</p>
 </sp>
 <sp who="#GRM">
  <speaker>Mr Gryll</speaker>
  <p>Bream, Doctor: there is not much to be said for bream.</p>
 </sp>
 <sp who="#OPI">
  <speaker>The Reverend Doctor Opimian</speaker>
  <p>On the contrary, sir, I think there is much to be said for him. In the first
     place....</p>
  <p>Fish, Miss Gryll -- I could discourse to you on fish by the hour: but for the present I
     will forbear.</p>
 </sp>
</div>
Here the who attribute values (#OPI etc.) are links, pointing to a list of the characters in the novel, each of which has an identifier:
<list>
 <head>Characters in the novel</head>
 <item xml:id="OPI">
  <name>Dr Opimian</name> : named for the famous Roman fine wine</item>
 <item xml:id="GRM">
  <name>Mr Gryll</name> : named for the mythical Gryllus, one of Ulysses'
   sailors transformed by Circe into a pig, who argues that he was happier in that state than
   as a man</item>
</list>

5 Page and Line Numbers

Page and line breaks etc. may be marked with the following elements.

These elements mark a single point in the text, not a span of text. The global n attribute should be used to supply the number of the page or line beginning at the tag.

When working from a paginated original, it is often useful to record its pagination, if only to simplify later proof-reading. It is also useful for synchronizing an encoded text with a set of page images. Recording the line breaks may be useful for similar reasons.

If features such as pagination or lineation are marked for more than one edition, specify the edition in question using the ed attribute, and supply as many tags are necessary. For example, in the following passage we indicate where the page breaks occur in two different editions (ED1 and ED2)
<p>I wrote to Moor House and to Cambridge immediately, to say what I had done: fully
explaining also why I had thus acted. Diana and <pb ed="ED1n="475"/> Mary approved the step
unreservedly. Diana announced that she would <pb ed="ED2n="485"/>just give me time to get
over the honeymoon, and then she would come and see me.</p>

A special attribute break may be used to indicate whether or not this empty element is considered as a word-breaking, irrespective of any adjacent whitespace. For example, in the following encoded sample:

The pb and lb elements are special cases of the general class of milestone elements which mark reference points within a text. The generic milestone element can mark any kind of reference point: for example, a column break, the start of a new kind of section not otherwise tagged, or in general any significant change in the text not marked by an XML element. The names used for types of unit and for editions referred to by the ed and unit attributes may be chosen freely, but should be documented in the header refsDecl element (see 19.2.3 Reference and Classification Declarations). The milestone element may be used to replace the others, or the others may be used as a set; they should not be mixed arbitrarily.

6 Marking Highlighted Phrases

6.1 Changes of Typeface, etc.

Highlighted words or phrases are those made visibly different from the rest of the text, typically by a change of type font, handwriting style, ink colour etc., which is intended to draw the reader's attention to some associated change.

The global rend attribute can be attached to any element, and used wherever necessary to specify details of the highlighting used for it in the source. For example, a heading rendered in bold might be tagged <head rend="bold">, and one in italic <head rend="italic">.

The values to be used for the rend attribute are not specified by the TEI Guidelines, since they will depend entirely on the needs of the particular project. Some typical values might include italic, bold etc. for font variations; center, right etc. for alignment; large, small etc. for size; smallcaps, allcaps etc. for type variants and so on. Several such words may be used in combination as necessary, but no formal syntax is proposed. The full TEI Guidelines provide more rigorous mechanisms, using other W3C standards such as CSS, as an alternative to the use of rend.

It is not always possible or desirable to interpret the reasons for such changes of rendering in a text. In such cases, the element hi may be used to mark a sequence of highlighted text without making any claim as to its status.

  • hi (highlighted) marks a word or phrase as graphically distinct from the surrounding text, for reasons concerning which no claim is made.
In the following example, the use of a distinct typeface for the subheading and for the included name are recorded but not interpreted:
<p>
 <hi rend="gothic">And this Indenture further
   witnesseth</hi> that the said <hi rend="italic">Walter Shandy</hi>, merchant, in
consideration of the said intended marriage ...
</p>

Alternatively, where the cause for the highlighting can be identified with confidence, a number of other, more specific, elements are available.

  • emph (emphasized) marks words or phrases which are stressed or emphasized for linguistic or rhetorical effect.
  • foreign identifies a word or phrase as belonging to some language other than that of the surrounding text.
  • gloss identifies a phrase or word used to provide a gloss or definition for some other word or phrase.
  • label contains any label or heading used to identify part of a text, typically but not exclusively in a list or glossary.
  • mentioned marks words or phrases mentioned, not used.
  • term contains a single-word, multi-word, or symbolic designation which is regarded as a technical term.
  • title contains a title for any kind of work.

Some features (notably quotations and glosses) may be found in a text either marked by highlighting, or with quotation marks. In either case, the elements q and gloss (as discussed in the following section) should be used. If the highlighting is to be recorded, use the global rend attribute.

As an example of the elements defined here, consider the following sentence:
On the one hand the Nibelungenlied is associated with the new rise of romance of twelfth-century France, the romans d'antiquité, the romances of Chrétien de Troyes, and the German adaptations of these works by Heinrich van Veldeke, Hartmann von Aue, and Wolfram von Eschenbach.
Interpreting the role of the highlighting, the sentence might look like this:
<p>On the one hand the <title>Nibelungenlied</title>
is associated with the new rise of romance of twelfth-century France, the <foreign>romans
   d'antiquité</foreign>, the romances of Chrétien de Troyes, ...</p>
Describing only the appearance of the original, it might look like this:
<p>On the one hand the <hi rend="italic">Nibelungenlied</hi> is associated with the new rise of romance of twelfth-century France,
the <hi rend="italic">romans d'antiquité</hi>, the romances of Chrétien de Troyes,
...</p>

6.2 Quotations and Related Features

Like changes of typeface, quotation marks are conventionally used to denote several different features within a text, of which the most frequent is quotation. When possible, we recommend that the underlying feature be tagged, rather than the simple fact that quotation marks appear in the text, using the following elements:

  • q (quoted) contains material which is distinguished from the surrounding text using quotation marks or a similar method, for any one of a variety of reasons including, but not limited to: direct speech or thought, technical terms or jargon, authorial distance, quotations from elsewhere, and passages that are mentioned but not used.
  • mentioned marks words or phrases mentioned, not used.
  • soCalled contains a word or phrase for which the author or narrator indicates a disclaiming of responsibility, for example by the use of scare quotes or italics.
  • gloss identifies a phrase or word used to provide a gloss or definition for some other word or phrase.
Here is a simple example of a quotation:
<p>Few dictionary makers are likely to forget Dr. Johnson's description of the
lexicographer as <q>a harmless drudge.</q>
</p>

To record how a quotation was printed (for example, in-line or set off as a display or block quotation), the rend attribute should be used. This may also be used to indicate the kind of quotation marks used.

Direct speech interrupted by a narrator can be represented simply by ending the quotation and beginning it again after the interruption, as in the following example:
<p>
 <q>Who-e debel you?</q> — he at last said —
<q>you no speak-e, damme, I kill-e.</q> And so saying, the lighted tomahawk began
flourishing about me in the dark.
</p>
If it is important to convey the idea that the two q elements together make up a single speech, the linking attributes next and prev may be used, as described in section 8.3 Special kinds of Linking.
Quotations may be accompanied by a reference to the source or speaker, using the who attribute, whether or not this is explicit in the text, as in the following example:
<q who="#Wilson">Spaulding, he came
down into the office just this day eight weeks with this very paper in his hand, and he
says:—<q who="#Spaulding">I wish to the Lord, Mr. Wilson, that I was a red-headed
   man.</q>
</q>
This example also demonstrates how quotations may be embedded within other quotations: one speaker (Wilson) quotes another speaker (Spaulding).

The creator of the electronic text must decide whether quotation marks are replaced by the tags or whether the tags are added and the quotation marks kept. If the quotation marks are removed from the text, the rend attribute may be used to record the way in which they were rendered in the copy text.

The full TEI Guidelines provide additional elements to distinguish direct speech, quotation, and other typical uses of quotation mark although it is not always possible and may not be considered desirable to interpret the function of quotation marks in a text. For simplicity, only q (which may be used for any such case) has been included in TEI Lite.

6.3 Foreign Words or Expressions

Words or phrases which are not in the main language of the texts may be tagged as such in one of two ways. If the word or phrase is already tagged for some reason, the element indicated should bear a value for the global xml:lang attribute indicating the language used. Where there is no applicable element, the element foreign may be used, again using the xml:lang attribute. For example:
<p>John has real <foreign xml:lang="fr">savoir-faire</foreign>.</p>
<p>Have you read <title xml:lang="de">Die
   Dreigroschenoper</title>?</p>
<p>
 <mentioned xml:lang="fr">Savoir-faire</mentioned> is French
for know-how.
</p>
<p>The court issued a writ of <term xml:lang="la">mandamus</term>.</p>

As these examples show, the foreign element should not be used to tag foreign words if some other more specific element such as title, mentioned, or term applies. The global xml:lang attribute may be attached to any element to show that it uses some other language than that of the surrounding text.

The codes used to identify languages, supplied on the xml:lang attribute, must be constructed in a particular way, and must conform to common Internet standards2, as further explained in the relevant section of the TEI Guidelines. Some simple example codes for a few languages are given here:

zhChinesegrcAncient Greek
enEnglishelGreek
enmMiddle EnglishjaJapanese
frFrenchlaLatin
deGermansaSanskrit

7 Notes

All notes, whether printed as footnotes, endnotes, marginalia, or elsewhere, should be marked using the same element:

Where possible, the body of a note should be inserted in the text at the point at which its identifier or mark first appears. This may not be possible for example with marginalia, which may not be anchored to an exact location. For simplicity, it may be adequate to position marginal notes before the relevant paragraph or other element. Notes may also be placed in a separate division of the text (as end-notes are, in printed books) and linked to the relevant portion of the text using their target attribute.

The n attribute may be used to supply the number or identifier of a note if this is required. The resp attribute should be used consistently to distinguish between authorial and editorial notes, if the work has both kinds.

Examples:
<p>Collections are ensembles of
distinct entities or objects of any sort. <note place="footn="1"> We explain below why we
   use the uncommon term <mentioned>collection</mentioned> instead of the expected
 <mentioned>set</mentioned>. Our usage corresponds to the <mentioned>aggregate</mentioned>
   of many mathematical writings and to the sense of <mentioned>class</mentioned> found in
   older logical writings. </note> The elements ...</p>
<lg xml:id="RAM609">
 <note place="margin">The
   curse is finally expiated</note>
 <l>And now this spell was snapt: once more</l>
 <l>I viewed
   the ocean green,</l>
 <l>And looked far forth, yet little saw</l>
 <l>Of what had else been seen
   —</l>
</lg>

8 Cross References and Links

Explicit cross references or links from one point in a text to another in the same or another document may be encoded using the elements described in this section. Implicit links (such as the association between two parallel texts, or that between a text and its interpretation) may be encoded using the linking attributes discussed in section 8.3 Special kinds of Linking.

8.1 Simple Cross References

A cross reference from one point within a single document to another can be encoded using either of the following elements:

  • ref (reference) defines a reference to another location, possibly modified by additional text or comment.
  • ptr (pointer) defines a pointer to another location.

The difference between these two elements is that ptr is an empty element, simply marking a point from which a link is to be made, whereas ref may contain some text as well, typically identifying the target of the cross reference. The ptr element would be used for a cross reference which is to be indicated by some non-verbal means such as a symbol or icon, or in an electronic text by a button. It is also useful in document production systems, where the formatter can generate the correct verbal form of the cross reference.

The following two forms, for example, are logically equivalent :
See especially <ref target="#SEC12">section 12 on
page 34</ref>.
See especially <ptr target="#SEC12"/>.
The value of the target attribute on either element may be the identifier of some other element within the current document. The passage or phrase being pointed at must bear an identifier, and must therefore be tagged as an element of some kind. In the following example, the cross reference is to a div element:
... see especially <ptr target="#SEC12"/>. ...
<div xml:id="SEC12">
 <head>Concerning Identifiers</head>
<!-- ... -->
</div>
Because the xml:id attribute is global, any element in a TEI document may be pointed to in this way. In the following example, a paragraph has been given an identifier so that it may be pointed at:
... this is
discussed in <ref target="#pspec">the paragraph on links</ref> ...
<p xml:id="pspec">Links
may be made to any kind of element ...</p>

Sometimes the target of a cross reference does not correspond with any particular feature of a text, and so may not be tagged as an element of some kind. If the desired target is simply a point in the current document, the easiest way to mark it is by introducing an anchor element at the appropriate spot. If the target is some sequence of words not otherwise tagged, the seg element may be introduced to mark them. These two elements are described as follows:

  • anchor (anchor point) attaches an identifier to a point within a text, whether or not it corresponds with a textual element.
  • seg (arbitrary segment) represents any segmentation of text below the ‘chunk’ level.
In the following (imaginary) example, ref elements have been used to represent points in this text which are to be linked in some way to other parts of it; in the first case to a point, and in the second, to a sequence of words:
Returning to <ref target="#ABCD">the point where I
dozed off</ref>, I noticed that <ref target="#EFGH">three words</ref> had been circled in
red by a previous reader
This encoding requires that elements with the specified identifiers (ABCD and EFGH in this example) are to be found somewhere else in the current document. Assuming that no element already exists to carry these identifiers, the anchor and seg elements may be used:
....
<anchor type="bookmarkxml:id="ABCD"/> .... ....<seg type="targetxml:id="EFGH"> ...
</seg> ...

The type attribute should be used (as above) to distinguish amongst different purposes for which these general purpose elements might be used in a text. Some other uses are discussed in section 8.3 Special kinds of Linking below.

8.2 Pointing to other documents

So far, we have shown how the elements ptr and ref may be used for cross-references or links whose targets occur within the same document as their source. However, the same elements may also be used to refer to elements in any other XML document or resource, such as a document on the web, or a database component. This is possible because the value of the target attribute may be any valid universal resource indicator (URI)Note: A full definition of this term, defined by the W3C (the consortium which manages the development and maintenance of the World Wide Web), is beyond the scope of this tutorial: however, the most frequently encountered version of a URI is the familiar ‘URL’ used to indicate a web page, such as http://www.tei-c.org/index.xml.

A URI may reference a web page or just a part of one, for example http://www.tei-c.org/index.xml#SEC2. The sharp sign indicates that what follows it is the identifier of an element to be located within the XML document identified by what precedes it: this example will therefore locate an element which has an xml:id attribute value of SEC2 within the document retrieved from http://www.tei-c.org/index.xml. In the examples we have discussed so far, the part to the left of the sharp sign has been omitted: this is understood to mean that the referenced element is to be located within the current document.

Parts of an XML document can be specified by means of other more sophisticated mechanisms using a special language called Xpath, also defined by the W3C. This is particularly useful where the elements to be linked to do not bear identifiers and must therefore be located by some other means.

8.3 Special kinds of Linking

The following special purpose linking attributes are defined for every element in the TEI Lite scheme:

ana
links an element with its interpretation.
corresp
links an element with one or more other corresponding elements.
next
links an element to the next element in an aggregate.
prev
links an element to the previous element in an aggregate.
The ana (analysis) attribute is intended for use where a set of abstract analyses or interpretations have been defined somewhere within a document, as further discussed in section 15 Interpretation and Analysis. For example, a linguistic analysis of the sentence ‘John loves Nancy’ might be encoded as follows:
<seg type="sentenceana="SVO">
 <seg type="lexana="#NP1">John</seg>
 <seg type="lexana="#VVI">loves</seg>
 <seg type="lexana="#NP1">Nancy</seg>
</seg>
This encoding implies the existence elsewhere in the document of elements with identifiers SVO, NP1, and VV1 where the significance of these particular codes is explained. Note the use of the seg element to mark particular components of the analysis, distinguished by the type attribute.
The corresp (corresponding) attribute provides a simple way of representing some form of correspondence between two elements in a text. For example, in a multilingual text, it may be used to link translation equivalents, as in the following example
<seg xml:lang="frxml:id="FR1"
 corresp="#EN1">
Jean
aime Nancy</seg>
<seg xml:lang="enxml:id="EN1"
 corresp="#FR1">
John loves
Nancy</seg>
The same mechanism may be used for a variety of purposes. In the following example, it has been used to represent the correspondences between ‘the show’ and ‘Shirley’, and between ‘NBC’ and ‘the network’:
<p>
 <title xml:id="shirley">Shirley</title>, which
made its Friday night debut only a month ago, was not listed on <name xml:id="nbc">NBC</name>'s new schedule, although <seg xml:id="networkcorresp="#nbc">the network</seg>
says <seg xml:id="showcorresp="#shirley">the show</seg> still is being
considered.
</p>
The next and prev attributes provide a simple way of linking together the components of a discontinuous element, as in the following example:
<q xml:id="Q1anext="#Q1b">Who-e debel you?</q>
he at last said — <q xml:id="Q1bprev="#Q1a">you no speak-e, damme, I kill-e.</q> And so
saying, the lighted tomahawk began flourishing about me in the dark.

9 Editorial Interventions

The process of encoding an electronic text has much in common with the process of editing a manuscript or other text for printed publication. In either case a conscientious editor may wish to record both the original state of the source and any editorial correction or other change made in it. The elements discussed in this and the next section provide some facilities for meeting these needs.

9.1 Correction and Normalization

The following elements may be used to mark correction, that is editorial changes introduced where the editor believes the original to be erroneous:

  • corr (correction) contains the correct form of a passage apparently erroneous in the copy text.
  • sic (Latin for thus or so) contains text reproduced although apparently incorrect or inaccurate.

The following elements may be used to mark normalization, that is editorial changes introduced for the sake of consistency or modernization of a text:

  • orig (original form) contains a reading which is marked as following the original, rather than being normalized or corrected.
  • reg (regularization) contains a reading which has been regularized or normalized in some sense.

As an example, consider this extract from the quarto printing of Shakespeare's Henry V.

... for his nose was as sharp as a pen and a table of green feelds
A modern editor might wish to make a number of interventions here, specifically to modernize (or normalise) the Elizabethan spellings of a' and feelds for he and fields respectively. He or she might also want to emend table to babbl'd, following an editorial tradition that goes back to the 18th century Shakespearian scholar Lewis Theobald. The following encoding would then be appropriate:
... for his nose was as sharp as
a pen and <reg>he</reg>
<corr resp="#Theobald">babbl'd</corr> of green
<reg>fields</reg>
A more conservative or source-oriented editor, however, might want to retain the original, but at the same time signal that some of the readings it contains are in some sense anomalous:
... for his nose was as sharp as a pen and
<orig>a</orig>
<sic>table</sic> of green
<orig>feelds</orig>
Finally, a modern digital editor may decide to combine both possibilities in a single composite text, using the choice element.
  • choice groups a number of alternative encodings for the same point in a text.
This allows an editor to mark where alternative readings are possible:
... for his nose was as sharp as a pen and
<choice>
 <orig>a</orig>
 <reg>he</reg>
</choice>
<choice>
 <corr resp="#Theobald">babbl'd</corr>
 <sic>table</sic>
</choice> of green

<choice>
 <orig>feelds</orig>
 <reg>fields</reg>
</choice>

9.2 Omissions, Deletions, and Additions

In addition to correcting or normalizing words and phrases, editors and transcribers may also supply missing material, omit material, or transcribe material deleted or crossed out in the source. In addition, some material may be particularly hard to transcribe because it is hard to make out on the page. The following elements may be used to record such phenomena:

  • add (addition) contains letters, words, or phrases inserted in the source text by an author, scribe, or a previous annotator or corrector.
  • gap indicates a point where material has been omitted in a transcription, whether for editorial reasons described in the TEI header, as part of sampling practice, or because the material is illegible, invisible, or inaudible.
  • del (deletion) contains a letter, word, or passage deleted, marked as deleted, or otherwise indicated as superfluous or spurious in the copy text by an author, scribe, or a previous annotator or corrector.
  • unclear contains a word, phrase, or passage which cannot be transcribed with certainty because it is illegible or inaudible in the source.
These elements may be used to record changes made by an editor, by the transcriber, or (in manuscript material) by the author or scribe. For example, if the source for an electronic text read ‘The following elements are provided for for simple editorial interventions.’ then it might be felt desirable to correct the obvious error, but at the same time to record the deletion of the superfluous second for, thus:
The following elements are provided for <del resp="#LB">for</del> simple editorial interventions.
The attribute value #LB on the resp attribute is used to point to a fuller definition (typically in a respStmt element) for the agency responsible for correcting the duplication of for.
If the source read ‘The following elements provided for simple editorial interventions.’ (i.e. if the verb had been inadvertently dropped) then the corrected text might read:
The following elements <add resp="#LB">are</add> provided for simple editorial interventions.
These elements are also used to record authorial changes in manuscripts. A manuscript in which the author has first written ‘How it galls me, what a galling shadow’, then crossed out the word galls and inserted dogs might be encoded thus:
How it <del hand="#DHLtype="overstrike">galls</del>
<add hand="#DHLplace="supralinear">dogs</add> me, what a galling shadow
Again, the code #DHL points to another location where more information about the hand concerned is to be found3.
Similarly, the unclear and gap elements may be used together to indicate the omission of illegible material; the following example also shows the use of add for a conjectural emendation:
One hundred
&amp; twenty good regulars joined to me <unclear>
 <gap reason="indecipherable"/>
</unclear>
&amp; instantly, would aid me signally <add hand="#ed">in?</add> an enterprise against
Wilmington.
The del element marks material which has been transcribed as part of the electronic text despite being marked as deleted, while gap marks the location of material which is omitted from the electronic text, whether it is legible or not. A language corpus, for example, might omit long quotations in foreign languages:
<p> ... An example of a list appearing in a fief
ledger of <name type="place">Koldinghus</name>
 <date>1611/12</date> is given below. It shows cash income from a sale of
honey.</p>
<gap>
 <desc>quotation from ledger (in Danish)</desc>
</gap>
<p>A description of the
overall structure of the account is once again ... </p>
Other corpora (particular those constructed before the widespread use of scanners) systematically omit figures and mathematics:
<p>At the bottom of your screen below the mode line is the <term>minibuffer</term>. This is
the area where Emacs echoes the commands you enter and where you specify filenames for Emacs
to find, values for search and replace, and so on. <gap reason="graphic">
  <desc>diagram of
     Emacs screen</desc>
 </gap>
</p>

The full TEI scheme provides more precise ways of capturing different aspects of a transcription, distinguishing for example between text added or supplied by the encoder and text indicated as supplied or deleted in the source. TEI Lite does not provide different tags for these purposes.

9.3 Abbreviations and their Expansion

Like names, dates, and numbers, abbreviations may be transcribed as they stand or expanded; they may be left unmarked, or encoded using the following elements:

  • abbr (abbreviation) contains an abbreviation of any sort.
  • expan (expansion) contains the expansion of an abbreviation.
The abbr element is useful as a means of distinguishing semi-lexical items such as acronyms or jargon:
We can sum up the above
discussion as follows: the identity of a <abbr>CC</abbr> is defined by that calibration of
values which motivates the elements of its <abbr>GSP</abbr>;
Every manufacturer of <abbr>3GL</abbr> or
<abbr>4GL</abbr> languages is currently nailing on <abbr>OOP</abbr> extensions

The type attribute may be used to distinguish types of abbreviation by their function.

The expan element is used to mark an expansion supplied by an encoder. This element is particularly useful in the transcription of manuscript materials. For example, the character p with a bar through its descender as a conventional representation for the word per is commonly encountered in Medieval European manuscripts. An encoder may choose to expand this as follows:
<expan>per</expan>
The expansion corresponding with an abbreviated form may not always contain the same letters as the abbreviation. Where it does, however, common editorial practice is to italicize or otherwise signal which letters have been supplied. The expan element should not be used for this purpose since its function is to indicate an expanded form, not a part of one. For example, consider the common abbreviation wt (for with) found in medieval texts. In a modern edition, an editor might wish to represent this as ‘with’, italicising the letters not found in the source. One simple means of achieving that would be an encoding such as the follow
<expan>w<hi rend="it">i</hi>t<hi rend="it">h</hi>
</expan>
The full TEI also provides elements <ex> and <am> for use in this situation, but these are not included in the TEI Lite schema.
To record both an abbreviation and its expansion, the choice element mentioned above may be used to group the abbreviated form with its proposed expansion:
<choice>
 <abbr>wt</abbr>
 <expan>with</expan>
</choice>

10 Names, Dates, and Numbers

The TEI scheme defines elements for a large number of ‘data-like’ features which may appear almost anywhere within almost any kind of text. These features may be of particular interest in a range of disciplines; they all relate to objects external to the text itself, such as the names of persons and places, numbers and dates. They also pose particular problems for many natural language processing (NLP) applications because of the variety of ways in which they may be presented within a text. The elements described here, by making such features explicit, reduce the complexity of processing texts containing them.

10.1 Names and Referring Strings

A referring string is a phrase which refers to some person, place, object, etc. Two elements are provided to mark such strings:

  • rs (referencing string) contains a general purpose name or referring string.
  • name (name, proper noun) contains a proper noun or noun phrase.
The type attribute is used to distinguish amongst (for example) names of persons, places and organizations, where this is possible:
<q>My dear <rs type="person">Mr. Bennet</rs>, </q>
said his lady to him one day,
<q>have you heard that <rs type="place">Netherfield Park</rs>
is let at last?</q>
It being one of the principles of the <rs type="organization">Circumlocution Office</rs> never, on any account whatsoever, to give a
straightforward answer, <rs type="person">Mr Barnacle</rs> said,
<q>Possibly.</q>
As the following example shows, the rs element may be used for any reference to a person, place, etc, not necessarily one in the form of a proper noun or noun phrase.
<q>My dear <rs type="person">Mr. Bennet</rs>,</q>
said <rs type="person">his lady</rs> to him one day...

The name element by contrast is provided for the special case of referencing strings which consist only of proper nouns; it may be used synonymously with the rs element, or nested within it if a referring string contains a mixture of common and proper nouns.

Simply tagging something as a name is rarely enough to enable automatic processing of personal names into the canonical forms usually required for reference purposes. The name as it appears in the text may be inconsistently spelled, partial, or vague. Moreover, name prefixes such as van or de la, may or may not be included as part of the reference form of a name, depending on the language and country of origin of the bearer.

The key attribute provides an alternative normalized identifier for the object being named, like a database record key. It may thus be useful as a means of gathering together all references to the same individual or location scattered throughout a document:
<q>My dear <rs type="personkey="BENM1">Mr.
   Bennet</rs>, </q> said <rs type="personkey="BENM2">his lady</rs> to him one day,
<q>have
you heard that <rs type="placekey="NETP1">Netherfield Park</rs> is let at
last?</q>
This use should be distinguished from the case of the reg (regularization) element, which provides a means of marking the standard form of a referencing string as demonstrated below:
<name type="personkey="WADLM1">
 <choice>
  <sic>Walter de la Mare</sic>
  <reg>de la Mare, Walter</reg>
 </choice>
</name> was
born at <name key="Ch1type="place">Charlton</name>, in <name key="KT1type="county">Kent</name>, in 1873.
The index element discussed in indexing may be more appropriate if the function of the regularization is to provide a consistent index:
<p>
 <name type="place">Montaillou</name> is not a
large parish. At the time of the events which led to <name type="person">Fournier</name>'s
<index>
  <term>Benedict XII, Pope of Avignon (Jacques Fournier)</term>
 </index>
investigations, the local population consisted of between 200 and 250
inhabitants.
</p>
Although adequate for many simple applications, these methods have two inconveniences: if the name occurs many times, then its regularised form must be repeated many times; and the burden of additional XML markup in the body of the text may be inconvenient to maintain and complex to process. For applications such as onomastics, relating to persons or places named rather than the name itself, or wherever a detailed analysis of the component parts of a name is needed, the full TEI Guidelines provide a range of other solutions.

10.2 Dates and Times

Tags for the more detailed encoding of times and dates include the following:

  • date contains a date in any format.
  • time contains a phrase defining a time of day in any format.
These elements have a number of attributes which can be used to provide normalised versions of their values.
  • att.datable provides attributes for normalization of elements that contain dates, times, or datable events.
    periodsupplies a pointer to some location defining a named period of time within which the datable item is understood to have occurred.
    when [att.datable.w3c]supplies the value of the date or time in a standard form, e.g. yyyy-mm-dd.
The when attribute specifies a normalized form for the date or time, using one of the standard formats defined by ISO 8601. Partial dates or times (e.g. ‘1990’, ‘September 1990’, ‘twelvish’) can be expressed by omitting a part of the value supplied, as in the following examples:
<date when="1980-02-21">21
Feb 1980</date>
<date when="1990">1990</date>
<date when="1990-09">September 1990</date>
<date when="--09">September</date>
<date when="2001-09-11T12:48:00">Sept 11th, 12 minutes before 9
am</date>
Note in the last example the use of a normalized representation for the date string which includes a time: this example could thus equally well be tagged using the time element.
Given on the <date when="1977-06-12">Twelfth
Day of June in the Year of Our Lord One Thousand Nine Hundred and Seventy-seven of the
Republic the Two Hundredth and first and of the University the Eighty-Sixth.</date>
<l>specially when it's nine below zero</l>
<l>and <time when="15:00:00">three o'clock in the afternoon</time>
</l>

10.3 Numbers

Numbers can be written with either letters or digits (twenty-one, xxi, and 21) and their presentation is language-dependent (e.g. English 5th becomes Greek 5.; English 123,456.78 equals French 123.456,78). In natural-language processing or machine-translation applications, it is often helpful to distinguish them from other, more ‘lexical’ parts of the text. In other applications, the ability to record a number's value in standard notation is important. The num element provides this possibility:

  • num (number) contains a number, written in any form.
For example:
<num value="33">xxxiii</num>
<num type="cardinalvalue="21">twenty-one</num>
<num type="percentagevalue="10">ten percent</num>
<num type="percentagevalue="10">10%</num>
<num type="ordinalvalue="5">5th</num>

11 Lists

The element list is used to mark any kind of list. A list is a sequence of text items, which may be numbered, bulleted, or arranged as a glossary list. Each item may be preceded by an item label (in a glossary list, this label is the term being defined):

Individual list items are tagged with item. The first item may optionally be preceded by a head, which gives a heading for the list. The numbering of a list may be omitted, indicated using the n attribute on each item, or (rarely) tagged as content using the label element. The following are all thus equivalent:
<list>
 <head>A short list</head>
 <item>First item in list.</item>
 <item>Second item in list.</item>
 <item>Third item in list.</item>
</list>
<list>
 <head>A short list</head>
 <item n="1">First item in list.</item>
 <item n="2">Second item in list.</item>
 <item n="3">Third item in list.</item>
</list>
<list>
 <head>A short list</head>
 <label>1</label>
 <item>First item in list.</item>
 <label>2</label>
 <item>Second item in list.</item>
 <label>3</label>
 <item>Third item in list.</item>
</list>
The styles should not be mixed in the same list.
A simple two-column table may be treated as a glossary list, tagged <list type="gloss">. Here, each item comprises a term and a gloss, marked with label and item respectively. These correspond to the elements term and gloss, which can occur anywhere in prose text.
<list type="gloss">
 <head>Vocabulary</head>
 <label xml:lang="enm">nu</label>
 <item>now</item>
 <label xml:lang="enm">lhude</label>
 <item>loudly</item>
 <label xml:lang="enm">bloweth</label>
 <item>blooms</item>
 <label xml:lang="enm">med</label>
 <item>meadow</item>
 <label xml:lang="enm">wude</label>
 <item>wood</item>
 <label xml:lang="enm">awe</label>
 <item>ewe</item>
 <label xml:lang="enm">lhouth</label>
 <item>lows</item>
 <label xml:lang="enm">sterteth</label>
 <item>bounds, frisks</item>
 <label xml:lang="enm">verteth</label>
 <item xml:lang="la">pedit</item>
 <label xml:lang="enm">murie</label>
 <item>merrily</item>
 <label xml:lang="enm">swik</label>
 <item>cease</item>
 <label xml:lang="enm">naver</label>
 <item>never</item>
</list>

Where the internal structure of a list item is more complex, it may be preferable to regard the list as a table, for which special-purpose tagging is defined below (13 Tables).

Lists of whatever kind can, of course, nest within list items to any depth required. Here, for example, a glossary list contains two items, each of which is itself a simple list:
<list type="gloss">
 <label>EVIL</label>
 <item>
  <list type="simple">
   <item>I am cast upon a horrible desolate island, void of all hope of recovery.</item>
   <item>I am singled out and separated as it were from all the world to be miserable.</item>
   <item>I am divided from mankind — a solitaire; one banished from human society.</item>
  </list>
 </item>
 <label>GOOD</label>
 <item>
  <list type="simple">
   <item>But I am alive; and not drowned, as all my ship's company were.</item>
   <item>But I am singled out, too, from all the ship's crew, to be spared from
       death...</item>
   <item>But I am not starved, and perishing on a barren place, affording no
       sustenances....</item>
  </list>
 </item>
</list>
A list need not necessarily be displayed in list format. For example,
<p>On those remote pages it is written that animals
are divided into <list rend="run-on">
  <item n="a">those that belong to the Emperor,</item>
  <item n="b"> embalmed ones, </item>
  <item n="c"> those that are trained, </item>
  <item n="d"> suckling pigs, </item>
  <item n="e"> mermaids, </item>
  <item n="f"> fabulous ones, </item>
  <item n="g"> stray dogs, </item>
  <item n="h"> those that are included in this classification, </item>
  <item n="i"> those that tremble as if they were mad, </item>
  <item n="j"> innumerable ones, </item>
  <item n="k"> those drawn with a very fine camel's-hair brush, </item>
  <item n="l"> others, </item>
  <item n="m"> those that have just broken a flower vase, </item>
  <item n="n"> those that resemble flies from a distance.</item>
 </list>
</p>

Lists of bibliographic items should be tagged using the listBibl element, described in the next section.

12 Bibliographic Citations

It is often useful to distinguish bibliographic citations where they occur within texts being transcribed for research, if only so that they will be properly formatted when the text is printed out. The element bibl is provided for this purpose. Where the components of a bibliographic reference are to be distinguished, the following elements may be used as appropriate. It is generally useful to mark at least those parts (such as the titles of articles, books, and journals) which will need special formatting. The other elements are provided for cases where particular interest attaches to such details.

For example, the following editorial note might be transcribed as shown:
He was a member of Parliament for Warwickshire in 1445, and died March 14, 1470 (according to Kittredge, Harvard Studies 5. 88ff).
He was a member of Parliament for Warwickshire
in 1445, and died March 14, 1470 (according to <bibl>
 <author>Kittredge</author>,
<title>Harvard Studies</title>
 <biblScope>5. 88ff</biblScope>
</bibl>).

For lists of bibliographic citations, the listBibl element should be used; it may contain a series of bibl elements.

13 Tables

Tables represent a challenge for any text processing system, but simple tables, at least, appear in so many texts that even in the simplified TEI tag set presented here, markup for tables is necessary. The following elements are provided for this purpose:

For example, Defoe uses mortality tables like the following in the Journal of the Plague Year to show the rise and ebb of the epidemic:
<p>It was indeed coming on amain, for the burials
that same week were in the next adjoining parishes thus:— <table rows="5cols="4">
  <row role="data">
   <cell role="label">St. Leonard's, Shoreditch</cell>
   <cell>64</cell>
   <cell>84</cell>
   <cell>119</cell>
  </row>
  <row role="data">
   <cell role="label">St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate</cell>
   <cell>65</cell>
   <cell>105</cell>
   <cell>116</cell>
  </row>
  <row role="data">
   <cell role="label">St. Giles's, Cripplegate</cell>
   <cell>213</cell>
   <cell>421</cell>
   <cell>554</cell>
  </row>
 </table>
</p>
<p>This shutting up of houses was at first counted a very cruel and unchristian
method, and the poor people so confined made bitter lamentations. ... </p>

14 Figures and Graphics

Not all the components of a document are necessarily textual. The most straightforward text will often contain diagrams or illustrations, to say nothing of documents in which image and text are inextricably intertwined, or electronic resources in which the two are complementary.

The encoder may simply record the presence of a graphic within the text, possibly with a brief description of its content, and may also provide a link to a digitized version of the graphic, using the following elements:

Any textual information accompanying the graphic, such as a heading and/or caption, may be included within the figure element itself, in a head and one or more p elements, as also may any text appearing within the graphic itself. It is strongly recommended that a prose description of the image be supplied, as the content of a figDesc element, for the use of applications which are not able to render the graphic, and to render the document accessible to vision-impaired readers. (Such text is not normally considered part of the document proper.)

The simplest use for these elements is to mark the position of a graphic and provide a link to it, as in this example;
<pb n="412"/>
<figure>
 <graphic url="p412fig.png"/>
</figure>
<pb n="413"/>
This indicates that the graphic contained by the file p412fig.png appears between pages 412 and 413.
The graphic element can appear anywhere that textual content is permitted, within but not between paragraphs or headings. In the following example, the encoder has decided to treat a specific printer's ornament as a heading:
<head>
 <graphic url="http://www.iath.virginia.edu/gants/Ornaments/Heads/hp-ral02.gif"/>
</head>
More usually, a graphic will have at the least an identifying title, which may be encoded using the head element, or a number of figures may be grouped together in a particular structure. It is also often convenient to include a brief description of the image. The figure element provides a means of wrapping one or more such elements together as a kind of graphic ‘block’:
<figure>
 <graphic url="fessipic.png"/>
 <head>Mr Fezziwig's Ball</head>
 <figDesc>A Cruikshank
   engraving showing Mr Fezziwig leading a group of revellers.</figDesc>
</figure>
These cases should be carefully distinguished from the case where an encoded text is complemented by a collection of digital images, maintained as a distinct resource. The facs attribute may be used to associate any element in an encoded text with a digital facsimile of it. In the simple case where only page images are available, the facs attribute on the pb element may be used to associate each image with an appropriate point in the text:
<text>
 <pb facs="page1.pngn="1"/>
<!-- text contained on page 1 is encoded here -->
 <pb facs="page2.pngn="2"/>
<!-- text contained on page 2 is encoded here -->
</text>
This method is only appropriate in the simple case where each digital image file page1.png etc. corresponds with a single transcribed and encoded page. If more detailed alignment of image and transcription is required, for example because the image files actually represent double page spreads, more sophisticated mechanisms are provided in the full TEI Guidelines.

15 Interpretation and Analysis

It is often said that all markup is a form of interpretation or analysis. While it is certainly difficult, and may be impossible, to distinguish firmly between ‘objective’ and ‘subjective’ information in any universal way, it remains true that judgments concerning the latter are typically regarded as more likely to provide controversy than those concerning the former. Many scholars therefore prefer to record such interpretations only if it is possible to alert the reader that they are considered more open to dispute, than the rest of the markup. This section describes some of the elements provided by the TEI scheme to meet this need.

15.1 Orthographic Sentences

Interpretation typically ranges across the whole of a text, with no particular respect to other structural units. A useful preliminary to intensive interpretation is therefore to segment the text into discrete and identifiable units, each of which can then bear a label for use as a sort of ‘canonical reference’. To facilitate such uses, these units may not cross each other, nor nest within each other. They may conveniently be represented using the following element:

  • s (s-unit) contains a sentence-like division of a text.
As the name suggests, the s element is most commonly used (in linguistic applications at least) for marking orthographic sentences, that is, units defined by orthographic features such as punctuation. For example, the passage from Jane Eyre discussed earlier might be divided into s-units as follows:
<pb n="474"/>
<div type="chaptern="38">
 <p>
  <s n="001">Reader, I married him.</s>
  <s n="002">A quiet wedding we had:</s>
  <s n="003">he
     and I, the parson and clerk, were alone present.</s>
  <s n="004">When we got back from
     church, I went into the kitchen of the manor-house, where Mary was cooking the dinner, and
     John cleaning the knives, and I said —</s>
 </p>
 <p>
  <q>
   <s n="005">Mary, I have been married to Mr Rochester this morning.</s>
  </q> ... </p>
</div>
Note that s elements cannot nest: the beginning of one s element implies that the previous one has finished. When s-units are tagged as shown above, it is advisable to tag the entire text end-to-end, so that every word in the text being analysed will be contained by exactly one s element, whose identifier can then be used to specify a unique reference for it. If the identifiers used are unique within the document, then the xml:id attribute might be used in preference to the n used in the above example.

15.2 Words and punctuation

Tokenization, that is, the identification of lexical or non-lexical tokens within a text, is a very common requirement for all kinds of textual analysis, and not an entirely trivial one. The decision as to whether, for example, ‘can't’ in English or ‘du’ in French should be treated as one word or two is not simple. Consequently it is often useful to make explicit the preferred tokenization in a marked up text. The following elements are available for this purpose:

  • w (word) represents a grammatical (not necessarily orthographic) word.
  • pc (punctuation character) contains a character or string of characters regarded as constituting a single punctuation mark.
For example, the output from a part of speech tagger might be recorded in TEI Lite as follows:
<s n="1">
 <w ana="#NP0">Marley</w>
 <w ana="#VBD">was</w>
 <w ana="#AJ0">dead</w>
 <pc>:</pc>
 <w ana="#TO0">to</w>
 <w ana="#VBB">begin</w>
 <w ana="#PRP">with</w>
 <pc>. </pc>
</s>
In this example, each word has been decorated with an automatically generated part of speech code, using the ana attribute discussed in section 8.3 Special kinds of Linking above. The w also provides for each word to be associated with a root form or lemma, either explicitly using the lemma attribute, or by reference, using the lemmaRef attribute, as in this example:
...<w ana="#VBDlemma="be"
 lemmaRef="http://www.myLexicon.com/be">
was</w> ...

15.3 General-Purpose Interpretation Elements

The w element is a specialisation of the seg element which has already been introduced for use in identifying otherwise unmarked targets of cross references and hypertext links (see section 8 Cross References and Links); it identifies some phrase-level portion of text to which the encoder may assign a user-specified type, as well as a unique identifier; it may thus be used to tag textual features for which there is no other provision in the published TEI Guidelines.

For example, the Guidelines provide no ‘apostrophe’ element to mark parts of a literary text in which the narrator addresses the reader (or hearer) directly. One approach might be to regard these as instances of the q element, distinguished from others by an appropriate value for the who attribute. A possibly simpler, and certainly more general, solution would however be to use the seg element as follows:
<div type="chaptern="38">
 <p>
  <seg type="apostrophe">Reader, I married him.</seg> A quiet wedding we had: ...</p>
</div>
The type attribute on the seg element can take any value, and so can be used to record phrase-level phenomena of any kind; it is good practice to record the values used and their significance in the header.

A seg element of one type (unlike the s element which it superficially resembles) can be nested within a seg element of the same or another type. This enables quite complex structures to be represented; some examples were given in section 8.3 Special kinds of Linking above. However, because it must respect the requirement that elements be properly nested and may not cut across each other, it cannot cope with the common requirement to associate an interpretation with arbitrary segments of a text which may completely ignore the document hierarchy. It also requires that the interpretation itself be represented by a single coded value in the type attribute.

Neither restriction applies to the interp element, which provides powerful features for the encoding of quite complex interpretive information in a relatively straightforward manner.

  • interp (interpretation) summarizes a specific interpretative annotation which can be linked to a span of text.
  • interpGrp (interpretation group) collects together a set of related interpretations which share responsibility or type.

These elements allow the encoder to specify both the class of an interpretation, and the particular instance of that class which the interpretation involves. Thus, whereas with seg one can say simply that something is an apostrophe, with interp one can say that it is an instance (apostrophe) of a larger class (rhetorical figures).

Moreover, interp is a ‘stand off’ element: it does not surround the segments of text which it describes, but instead is linked to the passage in question either by means of the ana attribute discussed in section 8.3 Special kinds of Linking above, or by means of its own inst attribute. This means that any kind of analysis can be represented, independently of the document hierarchy, as well as facilitating the grouping of analyses of a particular type together. A special purpose interpGrp element is provided for the latter purpose.

For example, suppose that you wish to mark such diverse aspects of a text as themes or subject matter, rhetorical figures, and the locations of individual scenes of the narrative. Different portions of our sample passage from Jane Eyre for example, might be associated with the rhetorical figures of apostrophe, hyperbole, and metaphor; with subject-matter references to churches, servants, cooking, postal service, and honeymoons; and with scenes located in the church, in the kitchen, and in an unspecified location (drawing room?).

These interpretations could be placed anywhere within the text element; it is however good practice to put them all in the same place (e.g. a separate section of the front or back matter), as in the following example:
<back>
 <div type="Interpretations">
  <p>
   <interp xml:id="fig-apos-1"
    resp="#LB-MSMtype="figureOfSpeech">
apostrophe</interp>
   <interp xml:id="fig-hyp-1"
    resp="#LB-MSMtype="figureOfSpeech">
hyperbole</interp>
   <interp xml:id="set-church-1"
    resp="#LB-MSMtype="setting">
church</interp>
   <interp xml:id="ref-church-1"
    resp="#LB-MSMtype="reference">
church</interp>
   <interp xml:id="ref-serv-1"
    resp="#LB-MSMtype="reference">
servants</interp>
  </p>
 </div>
</back>
The evident redundancy of this encoding can be considerably reduced by using the interpGrp element to group together all those interp elements which share common attribute values, as follows:
<back>
 <div type="Interpretations">
  <p>
   <interpGrp type="figureOfSpeech"
    resp="#LB-MSM">

    <interp xml:id="fig-apos">apostrophe</interp>
    <interp xml:id="fig-hyp">hyperbole</interp>
    <interp xml:id="fig-meta">metaphor</interp>
   </interpGrp>
   <interpGrp type="scene-setting"
    resp="#LB-MSM">

    <interp xml:id="set-church">church</interp>
    <interp xml:id="set-kitch">kitchen</interp>
    <interp xml:id="set-unspec">unspecified</interp>
   </interpGrp>
   <interpGrp type="reference"
    resp="#LB-MSM">

    <interp xml:id="ref-church">church</interp>
    <interp xml:id="ref-serv">servants</interp>
    <interp xml:id="ref-cook">cooking</interp>
   </interpGrp>
  </p>
 </div>
</back>
Once these interpretation elements have been defined, they can be linked with the parts of the text to which they apply in either or both of two ways. The ana attribute can be used on whichever element is appropriate:
<div type="chaptern="38">
 <p xml:id="P38.1"
  ana="#set-church #set-kitch">

  <s xml:id="P38.1.1ana="#fig-apos">Reader, I
     married him.</s>
 </p>
</div>
Note in this example that since the paragraph has two settings (in the church and in the kitchen), the identifiers of both have been supplied.
Alternatively, the interp elements can point to all the parts of the text to which they apply, using their inst attribute:
<interp xml:id="fig-apos-2"
 type="figureOfSpeechresp="#LB-MSMinst="#P38.1.1">
apostrophe</interp>
<interp xml:id="set-church-2"
 type="scene-settinginst="#P38.1resp="#LB-MSM">
church</interp>
<interp xml:id="set-kitchen-2"
 type="scene-settinginst="#P38.1resp="#LB-MSM">
kitchen</interp>
The interp element is not limited to any particular type of analysis. The literary analysis shown above is but one possibility; one could equally well use interp to capture a linguistic part-of-speech analysis. For example, the example sentence given in section 8.3 Special kinds of Linking assumes a linguistic analysis which might be represented as follows:
<interp xml:id="NP1type="pos">noun
phrase, singular</interp>
<interp xml:id="VV1type="pos">inflected verb, present-tense
singular</interp> ...

16 Technical Documentation

Although the focus of this document is on the use of the TEI scheme for the encoding of existing ‘pre-electronic’ documents, the same scheme may also be used for the encoding of new documents. In the preparation of new documents (such as this one), XML has much to recommend it: the document's structure can be clearly represented, and the same electronic text can be re-used for many purposes — to provide both online hypertext or browsable versions and well-formatted typeset versions from a common source for example.

To facilitate this, the TEI Lite schema includes some elements for marking features of technical documents in general, and of XML-related documents in particular.

16.1 Additional Elements for Technical Documents

The following elements may be used to mark particular features of technical documents:

  • eg (example) contains any kind of illustrative example.
  • code contains literal code from some formal language such as a programming language.
  • ident (identifier) contains an identifier or name for an object of some kind in a formal language. ident is used for tokens such as variable names, class names, type names, function names etc. in formal programming languages.
  • gi (element name) contains the name (generic identifier) of an element.
  • att (attribute) contains the name of an attribute appearing within running text.
  • formula contains a mathematical or other formula.
  • val (value) contains a single attribute value.
The following example shows how these elements might be used to encode a passage from a tutorial introducing the Fortran programming language:
<p>It is traditional to introduce a language with a
program like the following: <eg xml:space="preserve"> CHAR*12 GRTG GRTG = 'HELLO WORLD'  PRINT *, GRTG  END         </eg>
</p>
<p>This simple example first declares a variable <ident>GRTG</ident>, in the line
<code>CHAR*12 GRTG</code>, which identifies <ident>GRTG</ident> as consisting of 12 bytes
of type <ident>CHAR</ident>. To this variable, the value <val>HELLO WORLD</val> is then
assigned.</p>

A formatting application, given a text like that above, can be instructed to format examples appropriately (e.g. to preserve line breaks, or to use a distinctive font). Similarly, the use of tags such as ident greatly facilitates the construction of a useful index.

The formula element should be used to enclose a mathematical or chemical formula presented within the text as a distinct item. Since formulae generally include a large variety of special typographic features not otherwise present in ordinary text, it will usually be necessary to present the body of the formula in a specialized notation. The notation used should be specified by the notation attribute, as in the following example:
<formula notation="tex"> \begin{math}E =
mc^{2}\end{math} </formula>

A particular problem arises when XML encoding is the subject of discussion within a technical document, itself encoded in XML. In such a document, it is clearly essential to distinguish clearly the markup occurring within examples from that marking up the document itself, and end-tags are highly likely to occur. One simple solution is to use the predefined entity reference &lt; to represent each < character which marks the start of an XML tag within the examples. A more general solution is to mark off the whole body of each example as containing data which is not to be scanned for XML mark-up by the parser. This is achieved by enclosing it within a special XML construct called a CDATA marked section, as in the following example:

<p>A list should be encoded as
       follows: <eg><![ CDATA [ <list> <item>First item in the
       list</item> <item>Second item</item> </list> ]]> </eg> The
       <gi>list</gi> element consists of a series of <gi>item</gi>
       elements.

The list element used within the example above will not be regarded as forming part of the document proper, because it is embedded within a marked section (beginning with the special markup declaration <![CDATA[ , and ending with ]]>).

Note also the use of the gi element to tag references to element names (or generic identifiers) within the body of the text.

16.2 Generated Divisions

Most modern document production systems have the ability to generate automatically whole sections such as a table of contents or an index. The TEI Lite scheme provides an element to mark the location at which such a generated section should be placed.

  • divGen (automatically generated text division) indicates the location at which a textual division generated automatically by a text-processing application is to appear.
The divGen element can be placed anywhere that a division element would be legal, as in the following example:
<front>
 <titlePage>
<!-- ... -->
 </titlePage>
 <divGen type="toc"/>
 <div>
  <head>Preface</head>
<!-- ... -->
 </div>
</front>
<body>
<!-- ... -->
</body>
<back>
 <div>
  <head>Appendix</head>
<!-- ... -->
 </div>
 <divGen type="indexn="Index"/>
</back>

This example also demonstrates the use of the type attribute to distinguish the different kinds of division to be generated: in the first case a table of contents (a toc) and in the second an index.

When an existing index or table of contents is to be encoded (rather than one being generated) for some reason, the list element discussed in section 11 Lists should be used.

16.3 Index Generation

While production of a table of contents from a properly tagged document is generally unproblematic for an automatic processor, the production of a good quality index will often require more careful tagging. It may not be enough simply to produce a list of all parts tagged in some particular way, although extracting (for example) all occurrences of elements such as term or name will often be a good departure point for an index.

The TEI schema provides a special purpose index tag which may be used to mark both the parts of the document which should be indexed, and how the indexing should be done.

  • index (index entry) marks a location to be indexed for whatever purpose.
For example, the second paragraph of this section might include the following:
... TEI lite also provides a special purpose
<gi>index</gi> tag
<index>
 <term>indexing</term>
</index>
<index>
 <term>index (tag)</term>
 <index>
  <term>use in index generation</term>
 </index>
</index>
which may be used ...
The index element can also be used to provide a form of interpretive or analytic information. For example, in a study of Ovid, it might be desired to record all the poet's references to different figures, for comparative stylistic study. In the following lines of the Metamorphoses, such a study would record the poet's references to Jupiter (as deus, se, and as the subject of confiteor [in inflectional form number 227]), to Jupiter-in-the-guise-of-a-bull (as imago tauri fallacis and the subject of teneo), and so on.4
<l n="3.001">iamque deus posita fallacis
imagine tauri</l>
<l n="3.002">se confessus erat Dictaeaque rura tenebat</l>
This need might be met using the note element discussed in section in 7 Notes, or with the interp element discussed in section 15 Interpretation and Analysis. Here we demonstrate how it might also be satisfied by using the index element.
We assume that the object is to generate more than one index: one for names of deities (called dn), another for onomastic references (called on), a third for pronominal references (called pr) and so forth. One way of achieving this might be as follows:
<l n="3.001">iamque deus posita
fallacis imagine tauri <index indexName="dn">
  <term>Iuppiter</term>
  <index>
   <term>deus</term>
  </index>
 </index>
 <index indexName="on">
  <term>Iuppiter (taurus)</term>
  <index>
   <term>imago tauri
       fallacis</term>
  </index>
 </index>
</l>
<l n="3.002">se confessus erat Dictaeaque rura tenebat
<index indexName="pr">
  <term>Iuppiter</term>
  <index>
   <term>se</term>
  </index>
 </index>
 <index indexName="v">
  <term>Iuppiter</term>
  <index>
   <term>confiteor
       (v227)</term>
  </index>
 </index>
</l>
For each index element above, an entry will be generated in the appropriate index, using as headword the content of the term element it contains; the term elements nested within the secondary index element in each case provide a secondary keyword. The actual reference will be taken from the context in which the index element appears, i.e. in this case the identifier of the l element containing it.

16.4 Addresses

The address element is used to mark a postal address of any kind. It contains one or more addrLine elements, one for each line of the address.

  • address contains a postal address, for example of a publisher, an organization, or an individual.
  • addrLine (address line) contains one line of a postal address.
Here is a simple example:
<address>
 <addrLine>Computer Center (M/C 135)</addrLine>
 <addrLine>1940 W. Taylor, Room 124</addrLine>
 <addrLine>Chicago, IL 60612-7352</addrLine>
 <addrLine>U.S.A.</addrLine>
</address>
The individual parts of an address may be further distinguished by using the name element discussed above (section 10.1 Names and Referring Strings).
<address>
 <addrLine>Computer Center (M/C 135)</addrLine>
 <addrLine>1940 W. Taylor, Room 124</addrLine>
 <addrLine>
  <name type="city">Chicago</name>, IL 60612-7352</addrLine>
 <addrLine>
  <name type="country">USA</name>
 </addrLine>
</address>

17 Character Sets, Diacritics, etc.

With the advent of XML and its adoption of Unicode as the required character set for all documents, most problems previously associated with the representation of the divers languages and writing systems of the world are greatly reduced. For those working with standard forms of the European languages in particular, almost no special action is needed: any XML editor should enable you to input accented letters or other ‘non-ASCII’ characters directly, and they should be stored in the resulting file in a way which is transferable directly between different systems.

There are two important exceptions: the characters & and < may not be entered directly in an XML document, since they have a special significance as initiating markup. They must always be represented as entity references, like this: &amp; or &lt;. Other characters may also be represented by means of entity reference where necessary, for example to retain compatibility with a pre-Unicode processing system.

18 Front and Back Matter

18.1 Front Matter

For many purposes, particularly in older texts, the preliminary material such as title pages, prefatory epistles, etc., may provide very useful additional linguistic or social information. P5 provides a set of recommendations for distinguishing the textual elements most commonly encountered in front matter, which are summarized here.

18.1.1 Title Page

The start of a title page should be marked with the element titlePage. All text contained on the page should be transcribed and tagged with the appropriate element from the following list:

  • titlePage (title page) contains the title page of a text, appearing within the front or back matter.
  • docTitle (document title) contains the title of a document, including all its constituents, as given on a title page.
  • titlePart contains a subsection or division of the title of a work, as indicated on a title page.
  • byline contains the primary statement of responsibility given for a work on its title page or at the head or end of the work.
  • docAuthor (document author) contains the name of the author of the document, as given on the title page (often but not always contained in a byline).
  • docDate (document date) contains the date of a document, as given on a title page or in a dateline.
  • docEdition (document edition) contains an edition statement as presented on a title page of a document.
  • docImprint (document imprint) contains the imprint statement (place and date of publication, publisher name), as given (usually) at the foot of a title page.
  • epigraph contains a quotation, anonymous or attributed, appearing at the start or end of a section or on a title page.

Typeface distinctions should be marked with the rend attribute when necessary, as described above. Very detailed description of the letter spacing and sizing used in ornamental titles is not as yet provided for by the Guidelines. Changes of language should be marked by appropriate use of the xml:lang attribute or the foreign element, as necessary. Names of people, places, or organizations, may be tagged using the name element wherever they appear if no other more specific element is available.

Two example title pages follow:
<titlePage rend="Roman">
 <docTitle>
  <titlePart type="main"> PARADISE REGAIN'D. A POEM In IV <hi>BOOKS</hi>. </titlePart>
  <titlePart> To which is added <title>SAMSON AGONISTES</title>. </titlePart>
 </docTitle>
 <byline>The Author <docAuthor>JOHN MILTON</docAuthor>
 </byline>
 <docImprint>
  <name>LONDON</name>, Printed by <name>J.M.</name> for <name>John Starkey</name>
   at the <name>Mitre</name> in <name>Fleetstreet</name>, near
 <name>Temple-Bar.</name>
 </docImprint>
 <docDate>MDCLXXI</docDate>
</titlePage>
<titlePage>
 <docTitle>
  <titlePart type="main"> Lives of the Queens of England, from the Norman
     Conquest;</titlePart>
  <titlePart type="sub">with anecdotes of their courts. </titlePart>
 </docTitle>
 <titlePart>Now first published from Official Records and other authentic documents private
   as well as public.</titlePart>
 <docEdition>New edition, with corrections and additions</docEdition>
 <byline>By <docAuthor>Agnes Strickland</docAuthor>
 </byline>
 <epigraph>
  <q>The treasures of antiquity laid up in old historic rolls, I opened.</q>
  <bibl>BEAUMONT</bibl>
 </epigraph>
 <docImprint>Philadelphia: Blanchard and Lea</docImprint>
 <docDate>1860.</docDate>
</titlePage>
As elsewhere, the ref attribute may be used to link a name with a canonical definition of the entity being named. For example:
<byline>By <docAuthor>
  <name ref="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agnes_Strickland">Agnes
     Strickland</name>
 </docAuthor>
</byline>

18.1.2 Prefatory Matter

Major blocks of text within the front matter should be marked using div elements; the following suggested values for the type attribute may be used to distinguish various common types of prefatory matter:

preface
A foreword or preface addressed to the reader in which the author or publisher explains the content, purpose, or origin of the text
dedication
A formal offering or dedication of a text to one or more persons or institutions by the author.
abstract
A summary of the content of a text as continuous prose
ack
A formal declaration of acknowledgment by the author in which persons and institutions are thanked for their part in the creation of a text
contents
A table of contents, specifying the structure of a work and listing its constituents. The list element should be used to mark its structure.
frontispiece
A pictorial frontispiece, possibly including some text.

Where other kinds of prefatory matter are encountered, the encoder is at liberty to invent other values for the type attribute.

Like any text division, those in front matter may contain low level structural or non-structural elements as described elsewhere. They will generally begin with a heading or title of some kind which should be tagged using the head element. Epistles will contain the following additional elements:

  • salute (salutation) contains a salutation or greeting prefixed to a foreword, dedicatory epistle, or other division of a text, or the salutation in the closing of a letter, preface, etc.
  • signed (signature) contains the closing salutation, etc., appended to a foreword, dedicatory epistle, or other division of a text.
  • byline contains the primary statement of responsibility given for a work on its title page or at the head or end of the work.
  • dateline contains a brief description of the place, date, time, etc. of production of a letter, newspaper story, or other work, prefixed or suffixed to it as a kind of heading or trailer.
  • argument contains a formal list or prose description of the topics addressed by a subdivision of a text.
  • cit (cited quotation) contains a quotation from some other document, together with a bibliographic reference to its source. In a dictionary it may contain an example text with at least one occurrence of the word form, used in the sense being described, or a translation of the headword, or an example.
  • imprimatur contains a formal statement authorizing the publication of a work, sometimes required to appear on a title page or its verso.
  • opener groups together dateline, byline, salutation, and similar phrases appearing as a preliminary group at the start of a division, especially of a letter.
  • closer groups together salutations, datelines, and similar phrases appearing as a final group at the end of a division, especially of a letter.

Epistles which appear elsewhere in a text will, of course, contain these same elements.

As an example, the dedication at the start of Milton's Comus should be marked up as follows:
<div type="dedication">
 <head>To the Right Honourable <name>JOHN Lord Viscount BRACLY</name>, Son and Heir apparent
   to the Earl of Bridgewater, &amp;c.</head>
 <salute>MY LORD,</salute>
 <p>THis <hi>Poem</hi>, which receiv'd its first occasion of Birth from your Self, and
   others of your Noble Family .... and as in this representation your attendant
 <name>Thyrsis</name>, so now in all reall expression</p>
 <closer>
  <salute>Your faithfull, and most humble servant</salute>
  <signed>
   <name>H. LAWES.</name>
  </signed>
 </closer>
</div>

18.2 Back Matter

18.2.1 Structural Divisions of Back Matter

Because of variations in publishing practice, back matter can contain virtually any of the elements listed above for front matter, and the same elements should be used where this is so. Additionally, back matter may contain the following types of matter within the back element. Like the structural divisions of the body, these should be marked as div elements, and distinguished by the following suggested values of the type attribute:

appendix
An ancillary self-contained section of a work, often providing additional but in some sense extra-canonical text.
glossary
A list of terms associated with definition texts (‘glosses’): this should be encoded as a <<list type="gloss">> element
notes
A section in which textual or other kinds of notes are gathered together.
bibliogr
A list of bibliographic citations: this should be encoded as a listBibl
index
Any form of pre-existing index to the work (An index may also be generated for a document by using the index element described above).
colophon
A statement appearing at the end of a book describing the conditions of its physical production.

19 The Electronic Title Page

Every TEI text has a header which provides information analogous to that provided by the title page of printed text. The header is introduced by the element teiHeader and has four major parts:

A corpus or collection of texts with many shared characteristics may have one header for the corpus and individual headers for each component of the corpus. In this case the type attribute indicates the type of header. <teiHeader type="corpus"> introduces the header for corpus-level information.

Some of the header elements contain running prose which consists of one or more ps. Others are grouped:

19.1 The File Description

The fileDesc element is mandatory. It contains a full bibliographic description of the file with the following elements:

  • titleStmt (title statement) groups information about the title of a work and those responsible for its content.
  • editionStmt (edition statement) groups information relating to one edition of a text.
  • extent describes the approximate size of a text stored on some carrier medium or of some other object, digital or non-digital, specified in any convenient units.
  • publicationStmt (publication statement) groups information concerning the publication or distribution of an electronic or other text.
  • seriesStmt (series statement) groups information about the series, if any, to which a publication belongs.
  • notesStmt (notes statement) collects together any notes providing information about a text additional to that recorded in other parts of the bibliographic description.
  • sourceDesc (source description) describes the source from which an electronic text was derived or generated, typically a bibliographic description in the case of a digitized text, or a phrase such as "born digital" for a text which has no previous existence.
A minimal header has the following structure:
<teiHeader>
 <fileDesc>
  <titleStmt>
<!-- bibliographic description of the digital resource -->
  </titleStmt>
  <publicationStmt>
<!-- information about how the resource is distributed -->
  </publicationStmt>
  <sourceDesc>
<!-- information about the sources from which the digital resource is derived -->
  </sourceDesc>
 </fileDesc>
</teiHeader>

19.1.1 The Title Statement

The following elements can be used in the titleStmt:

  • title contains a title for any kind of work.
  • author in a bibliographic reference, contains the name(s) of an author, personal or corporate, of a work; for example in the same form as that provided by a recognized bibliographic name authority.
  • sponsor specifies the name of a sponsoring organization or institution.
  • funder (funding body) specifies the name of an individual, institution, or organization responsible for the funding of a project or text.
  • principal (principal researcher) supplies the name of the principal researcher responsible for the creation of an electronic text.
  • respStmt (statement of responsibility) supplies a statement of responsibility for the intellectual content of a text, edition, recording, or series, where the specialized elements for authors, editors, etc. do not suffice or do not apply. May also be used to encode information about individuals or organizations which have played a role in the production or distribution of a bibliographic work.
The title of a digital resource derived from a non-digital one will obviously be similar. However, it is important to distinguish the title of the computer file from that of the source text, for example:
[title of source]: a machine readable transcription [title of source]: electronic edition A machine readable version of: [title of source]
The respStmt element contains the following subcomponents:
  • resp (responsibility) contains a phrase describing the nature of a person's intellectual responsibility, or an organization's role in the production or distribution of a work.
  • name (name, proper noun) contains a proper noun or noun phrase.
Example:
<titleStmt>
 <title>Two stories by Edgar Allen Poe: a machine readable transcription</title>
 <author>Poe, Edgar Allen (1809-1849)</author>
 <respStmt>
  <resp>compiled by</resp>
  <name>James D. Benson</name>
 </respStmt>
</titleStmt>

19.1.2 The Edition Statement

The editionStmt groups information relating to one edition of the digital resource (where edition is used as elsewhere in bibliography), and may include the following elements:

  • edition describes the particularities of one edition of a text.
  • respStmt (statement of responsibility) supplies a statement of responsibility for the intellectual content of a text, edition, recording, or series, where the specialized elements for authors, editors, etc. do not suffice or do not apply. May also be used to encode information about individuals or organizations which have played a role in the production or distribution of a bibliographic work.
Example:
<editionStmt>
 <edition n="U2">Third
   draft, substantially revised <date>1987</date>
 </edition>
</editionStmt>

Determining exactly what constitutes a new edition of an electronic text is left to the encoder.

19.1.3 The Extent Statement

The extent statement describes the approximate size of the digital resource.

Example:
<extent>4532
bytes</extent>

19.1.4 The Publication Statement

The publicationStmt is mandatory. It may contain a simple prose description or groups of the elements described below:

  • publisher provides the name of the organization responsible for the publication or distribution of a bibliographic item.
  • distributor supplies the name of a person or other agency responsible for the distribution of a text.
  • authority (release authority) supplies the name of a person or other agency responsible for making a work available, other than a publisher or distributor.

At least one of these three elements must be present, unless the entire publication statement is in prose. The following elements may occur within them:

  • pubPlace (publication place) contains the name of the place where a bibliographic item was published.
  • address contains a postal address, for example of a publisher, an organization, or an individual.
  • idno (identifier) supplies any form of identifier used to identify some object, such as a bibliographic item, a person, a title, an organization, etc. in a standardized way.
  • availability supplies information about the availability of a text, for example any restrictions on its use or distribution, its copyright status, any licence applying to it, etc.
  • licence contains information about a licence or other legal agreement applicable to the text.
  • date contains a date in any format.
Example:
<publicationStmt>
 <publisher>University of Victoria Humanities Computing and Media Centre</publisher>
 <pubPlace>Victoria, BC</pubPlace>
 <date>2011</date>
 <availability status="restricted">
  <licence target="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/"> Distributed under a
     Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License </licence>
 </availability>
</publicationStmt>

19.1.5 Series and Notes Statements

The seriesStmt element groups information about the series, if any, to which a publication belongs. It may contain title, idno, or respStmt elements.

The notesStmt, if used, contains one or more note elements which contain a note or annotation. Some information found in the notes area in conventional bibliography has been assigned specific elements in the TEI scheme.

19.1.6 The Source Description

The sourceDesc is a mandatory element which records details of the source or sources from which the computer file is derived. It may contain simple prose or a bibliographic citation, using one or more of the following elements:

  • bibl (bibliographic citation) contains a loosely-structured bibliographic citation of which the sub-components may or may not be explicitly tagged.
  • listBibl (citation list) contains a list of bibliographic citations of any kind.
Examples:
<sourceDesc>
 <bibl>The first folio of Shakespeare, prepared by Charlton Hinman (The Norton Facsimile,
   1968)</bibl>
</sourceDesc>
<sourceDesc>
 <bibl>
  <author>CNN Network News</author>
  <title>News headlines</title>
  <date>12 Jun
     1989</date>
 </bibl>
</sourceDesc>

19.2 The Encoding Description

The encodingDesc element specifies the methods and editorial principles which governed the transcription of the text. Its use is highly recommended. It may be prose description or may contain elements from the following list:

  • projectDesc (project description) describes in detail the aim or purpose for which an electronic file was encoded, together with any other relevant information concerning the process by which it was assembled or collected.
  • samplingDecl (sampling declaration) contains a prose description of the rationale and methods used in sampling texts in the creation of a corpus or collection.
  • editorialDecl (editorial practice declaration) provides details of editorial principles and practices applied during the encoding of a text.
  • refsDecl (references declaration) specifies how canonical references are constructed for this text.
  • classDecl (classification declarations) contains one or more taxonomies defining any classificatory codes used elsewhere in the text.

19.2.1 Project and Sampling Descriptions

Examples of projectDesc and <samplingDesc>:
<encodingDesc>
 <projectDesc>
  <p>Texts collected for
     use in the Claremont Shakespeare Clinic, June 1990.
  </p>
 </projectDesc>
</encodingDesc>
<encodingDesc>
 <samplingDecl>
  <p>Samples of
     2000 words taken from the beginning of the text</p>
 </samplingDecl>
</encodingDesc>

19.2.2 Editorial Declarations

The editorialDecl contains a prose description of the practices used when encoding the text. Typically this description should cover such topics as the following, each of which may conveniently be given as a separate paragraph.

correction
how and under what circumstances corrections have been made in the text.
normalization
the extent to which the original source has been regularized or normalized.
quotation
what has been done with quotation marks in the original -- have they been retained or replaced by entity references, are opening and closing quotes distinguished, etc.
hyphenation
what has been done with hyphens (especially end-of-line hyphens) in the original -- have they been retained, replaced by entity references, etc.
segmentation
how has the text has been segmented, for example into sentences, tone-units, graphemic strata, etc.
interpretation
what analytic or interpretive information has been added to the text.
Example:
<editorialDecl>
 <p>The part of
   speech analysis applied throughout section 4 was added by hand and has not been
   checked.</p>
 <p>Errors in transcription controlled by using the WordPerfect spelling
   checker.</p>
 <p>All words converted to Modern American spelling using Webster's 9th
   Collegiate dictionary.</p>
</editorialDecl>

19.2.3 Reference and Classification Declarations

The refsDecl element is used to document the way in which any standard referencing scheme built into the encoding works. In its simplest form, it consists of prose description.

Example:
<refsDecl>
 <p>The <att>n</att>
   attribute on each <gi>div</gi> contains the canonical reference for each division in the
   form XX.yyy where XX is the book number in roman numeral and yyy is the section number in
   arabic.</p>
 <p>Milestone tags refer to the edition of 1830 as E30 and that of 1850 as E50.
 </p>
</refsDecl>

The classDecl element groups together definitions or sources for any descriptive classification schemes used by other parts of the header. At least one such scheme must be provided, encoded using the following elements:

  • taxonomy defines a typology either implicitly, by means of a bibliographic citation, or explicitly by a structured taxonomy.
  • bibl (bibliographic citation) contains a loosely-structured bibliographic citation of which the sub-components may or may not be explicitly tagged.
  • category contains an individual descriptive category, possibly nested within a superordinate category, within a user-defined taxonomy.
  • catDesc (category description) describes some category within a taxonomy or text typology, either in the form of a brief prose description or in terms of the situational parameters used by the TEI formal <textDesc>.
In the simplest case, the taxonomy may be defined by a bibliographic reference, as in the following example:
<classDecl>
 <taxonomy xml:id="LC-SH">
  <bibl>Library of Congress Subject Headings
  </bibl>
 </taxonomy>
</classDecl>
Alternatively, or in addition, the encoder may define a special purpose classification scheme, as in the following example:
<taxonomy xml:id="B">
 <bibl>Brown Corpus</bibl>
 <category xml:id="B.A">
  <catDesc>Press
     Reportage</catDesc>
  <category xml:id="B.A1">
   <catDesc>Daily</catDesc>
  </category>
  <category xml:id="B.A2">
   <catDesc>Sunday</catDesc>
  </category>
  <category xml:id="B.A3">
   <catDesc>National</catDesc>
  </category>
  <category xml:id="B.A4">
   <catDesc>Provincial</catDesc>
  </category>
  <category xml:id="B.A5">
   <catDesc>Political</catDesc>
  </category>
  <category xml:id="B.A6">
   <catDesc>Sports</catDesc>
  </category>
 </category>
 <category xml:id="B.D">
  <catDesc>Religion</catDesc>
  <category xml:id="B.D1">
   <catDesc>Books</catDesc>
  </category>
  <category xml:id="B.D2">
   <catDesc>Periodicals and
       tracts</catDesc>
  </category>
 </category>
</taxonomy>

Linkage between a particular text and a category within such a taxonomy is made by means of the catRef element within the textClass element, as described in the next section below.

19.3 The Profile Description

The profileDesc element enables information characterizing various descriptive aspects of a text to be recorded within a single framework. It has three optional components:

  • creation contains information about the creation of a text.
  • langUsage (language usage) describes the languages, sublanguages, registers, dialects, etc. represented within a text.
  • textClass (text classification) groups information which describes the nature or topic of a text in terms of a standard classification scheme, thesaurus, etc.

The creation element is useful for documenting where a work was created, even though it may not have been published or recorded there.

Example:
<creation>
 <date when="1992-08">August 1992</date>
 <name type="place">Taos, New Mexico</name>
</creation>
The langUsage element is useful where a text contains many different languages. It may contain language elements to document each particular language used:
  • language characterizes a single language or sublanguage used within a text.
For example, a text containing predominantly text in French as spoken in Quebec, but also smaller amounts of British and Canadian English might be documented as follows:
<langUsage>
 <language ident="fr-CAusage="60">Québecois</language>
 <language ident="en-CAusage="20">Canadian business English</language>
 <language ident="en-GBusage="20">British English</language>
</langUsage>

The textClass element classifies a text. This may be done with reference to a classification system locally defined by means of the classDecl element, or by reference to some externally defined established scheme such as the Universal Decimal Classification. Texts may also be classified using lists of keywords, which may themselves be drawn from locally or externally defined control lists. The following elements are used to supply such classifications:

  • classCode (classification code) contains the classification code used for this text in some standard classification system.
  • catRef (category reference) specifies one or more defined categories within some taxonomy or text typology.
  • keywords contains a list of keywords or phrases identifying the topic or nature of a text.
The simplest way of classifying a text is by means of the classCode element. For example, a text with classification 410 in the Universal Decimal Classification might be documented as follows:
<classCode scheme="http://www.udc.org">410</classCode>
When a classification scheme has been locally defined using the taxonomy element discussed in the preceding subsection, the catRef element should be used to reference it. To continue the earlier example, a work classified in the Brown Corpus as Press reportage - Sunday and also as Religion might be documented as follows:
<catRef target="#B.A3 #B.D"/>
The element keywords contains a list of keywords or phrases identifying the topic or nature of a text. As usual, the attribute scheme identifies the source from which these terms are taken. For example, if the LC Subject Headings are used, following declaration of that classification system in a taxonomy element as above :
<textClass>
 <keywords scheme="#LCSH">
  <list>
   <item>English literature -- History and criticism -- Data processing.</item>
   <item>English literature -- History and criticism -- Theory etc.</item>
   <item>English language -- Style -- Data processing.</item>
  </list>
 </keywords>
</textClass>

Multiple classifications may be supplied using any of the mechanisms described in this section.

19.4 The Revision Description

The revisionDesc element provides a change log in which each change made to a text may be recorded. The log may be recorded as a sequence of change elements each of which contains a brief description of the change. The attributes when and who may be used to identify when the change was carried out and the agency responsible for it.

Example:
<revisionDesc>
 <change when="1991-03-06who="#EMB">File format updated</change>
 <change when="1990-05-25who="#EMB">Stuart's corrections entered</change>
</revisionDesc>

In a production environment it will usually be found preferable to use some kind of automated system to track and record changes. Many such version control systems, as they are known, can also be configured to update the TEI Header of a file automatically.

Appendix A List of Elements Described

The TEI Lite schema is a pure subset of TEI P5. In the following list of elements and classes used, some information, notably the examples, derives from the canonical definition for the element in TEI P5 and may therefore refer to elements or attributes not provided by TEI Lite. Note however that only the elements listed here are available within the TEI Lite schema. These specifications also refer to many attributes which although available in TEI Lite are not discussed in this tutorial for lack of space.

Schema tei_lite: Elements

<abbr>

<abbr> (abbreviation) contains an abbreviation of any sort. [3.5.5. Abbreviations and Their Expansions]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (type, @subtype)
typeallows the encoder to classify the abbreviation according to some convenient typology. Sample values include: 1] suspension; 2] contraction; 3] brevigraph; 4] superscription; 5] acronym; 6] title; 7] organization; 8] geographic
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Sample values include:
suspension
the abbreviation provides the first letter(s) of the word or phrase, omitting the remainder.
contraction
the abbreviation omits some letter(s) in the middle.
brevigraph
the abbreviation comprises a special symbol or mark.
superscription
the abbreviation includes writing above the line.
acronym
the abbreviation comprises the initial letters of the words of a phrase.
title
the abbreviation is for a title of address (Dr, Ms, Mr, …)
organization
the abbreviation is for the name of an organization.
geographic
the abbreviation is for a geographic name.
Note

The type attribute is provided for the sake of those who wish to classify abbreviations at their point of occurrence; this may be useful in some circumstances, though usually the same abbreviation will have the same type in all occurrences. As the sample values make clear, abbreviations may be classified by the method used to construct them, the method of writing them, or the referent of the term abbreviated; the typology used is up to the encoder and should be carefully planned to meet the needs of the expected use. For a typology of Middle English abbreviations, see [ID PETTY in TEI Guidelines]

Member of
Contained by
May contain
Note

The abbr tag is not required; if appropriate, the encoder may transcribe abbreviations in the source text silently, without tagging them. If abbreviations are not transcribed directly but expanded silently, then the TEI header should so indicate.

Example
<choice>
 <expan>North Atlantic Treaty Organization</expan>
 <abbr cert="low">NorATO</abbr>
 <abbr cert="high">NATO</abbr>
 <abbr cert="highxml:lang="fr">OTAN</abbr>
</choice>
Example
<choice>
 <abbr>SPQR</abbr>
 <expan>senatus populusque romanorum</expan>
</choice>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element abbr
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.typed.attribute.subtype,
   attribute type { teidata.enumerated }?,
   macro.phraseSeq
}

<add>

<add> (addition) contains letters, words, or phrases inserted in the source text by an author, scribe, or a previous annotator or corrector. [3.4.3. Additions, Deletions, and Omissions]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.transcriptional (@status, @cause, @seq) (att.editLike (@evidence, @instant) (att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max, @confidence)) ) ) (att.written (@hand)) att.placement (@place) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Note

In a diplomatic edition attempting to represent an original source, the add element should not be used for additions to the current TEI electronic edition made by editors or encoders. In these cases, either the corr or <supplied> element are recommended.

In a TEI edition of a historical text with previous editorial emendations in which such additions or reconstructions are considered part of the source text, the use of add may be appropriate, dependent on the editorial philosophy of the project.

Example
The story I am
going to relate is true as to its main facts, and as to the
consequences <add place="above">of these facts</add> from which
this tale takes its title.
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element add
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.transcriptional.attributes,
   att.placement.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   macro.paraContent
}

<address>

<address> contains a postal address, for example of a publisher, an organization, or an individual. [3.5.2. Addresses 2.2.4. Publication, Distribution, Licensing, etc. 3.11.2.4. Imprint, Size of a Document, and Reprint Information]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: interp interpGrp
figures: figure
header: idno
linking: anchor
Note

This element should be used for postal addresses only. Within it, the generic element addrLine may be used as an alternative to any of the more specialized elements available from the model.addrPart class, such as <street>, <postCode> etc.

Example
<address>
 <street>via Marsala 24</street>
 <postCode>40126</postCode>
 <name>Bologna</name>
 <name n="I">Italy</name>
</address>
Example
<address>
 <addrLine>Computing Center, MC 135</addrLine>
 <addrLine>P.O. Box 6998</addrLine>
 <addrLine>Chicago, IL 60680</addrLine>
 <addrLine>USA</addrLine>
</address>
Example
<address>
 <country key="FR"/>
 <settlement type="city">Lyon</settlement>
 <postCode>69002</postCode>
 <district type="arrondissement">IIème</district>
 <district type="quartier">Perrache</district>
 <street>
  <num>30</num>, Cours de Verdun</street>
</address>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <classRef key="model.global"
   minOccurs="0maxOccurs="unbounded"/>

  <sequence minOccurs="1"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">

   <classRef key="model.addrPart"/>
   <classRef key="model.global"
    minOccurs="0maxOccurs="unbounded"/>

  </sequence>
 </sequence>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element address
{
   att.global.attributes,
   ( model.global*, ( model.addrPart, model.global* )+ )
}

<addrLine>

<addrLine> (address line) contains one line of a postal address. [3.5.2. Addresses 2.2.4. Publication, Distribution, Licensing, etc. 3.11.2.4. Imprint, Size of a Document, and Reprint Information]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
core: address
May contain
Note

Addresses may be encoded either as a sequence of lines, or using any sequence of component elements from the model.addrPart class. Other non-postal forms of address, such as telephone numbers or email, should not be included within an address element directly but may be wrapped within an addrLine if they form part of the printed address in some source text.

Example
<address>
 <addrLine>Computing Center, MC 135</addrLine>
 <addrLine>P.O. Box 6998</addrLine>
 <addrLine>Chicago, IL</addrLine>
 <addrLine>60680 USA</addrLine>
</address>
Example
<addrLine>
 <ref target="tel:+1-201-555-0123">(201) 555 0123</ref>
</addrLine>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element addrLine { att.global.attributes, macro.phraseSeq }

<anchor>

<anchor> (anchor point) attaches an identifier to a point within a text, whether or not it corresponds with a textual element. [8.4.2. Synchronization and Overlap 16.5. Correspondence and Alignment]
Modulelinking
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
Member of
Contained by
May containEmpty element
Note

On this element, the global xml:id attribute must be supplied to specify an identifier for the point at which this element occurs within a document. The value used may be chosen freely provided that it is unique within the document and is a syntactically valid name. There is no requirement for values containing numbers to be in sequence.

Example
<s>The anchor is he<anchor xml:id="A234"/>re somewhere.</s>
<s>Help me find it.<ptr target="#A234"/>
</s>
Content model
<content>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element anchor { att.global.attributes, att.typed.attributes, empty }

<argument>

<argument> contains a formal list or prose description of the topics addressed by a subdivision of a text. [4.2. Elements Common to All Divisions 4.6. Title Pages]
Moduletextstructure
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
core: lg list
figures: figure table
May contain
Note

Often contains either a list or a paragraph

Example
<argument>
 <p>Monte Video — Maldonado — Excursion
   to R Polanco — Lazo and Bolas — Partridges —
   Absence of Trees — Deer — Capybara, or River Hog —
   Tucutuco — Molothrus, cuckoo-like habits — Tyrant
   Flycatcher — Mocking-bird — Carrion Hawks —
   Tubes formed by Lightning — House struck</p>
</argument>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <alternate minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">

   <classRef key="model.global"/>
   <classRef key="model.headLike"/>
  </alternate>
  <sequence minOccurs="1"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">

   <classRef key="model.common"/>
   <classRef key="model.global"
    minOccurs="0maxOccurs="unbounded"/>

  </sequence>
 </sequence>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element argument
{
   att.global.attributes,
   ( ( model.global | model.headLike )*, ( model.common, model.global* )+ )
}

<att>

<att> (attribute) contains the name of an attribute appearing within running text. [22. Documentation Elements]
Moduletagdocs
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
schemesupplies an identifier for the scheme in which this name is defined. Sample values include: 1] TEI(text encoding initiative) ; 2] DBK(docbook) ; 3] XX(unknown) ; 4] imaginary; 5] XHTML; 6] XML; 7] XI
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Sample values include:
TEI
(text encoding initiative) this attribute is part of the TEI scheme. [Default]
DBK
(docbook) this attribute is part of the Docbook scheme.
XX
(unknown) this attribute is part of an unknown scheme.
imaginary
the attribute is from a non-existent scheme, for illustrative purposes only
XHTML
the attribute is part of the XHTML language
XML
the attribute is part of the XML language
XI
the attribute is defined in the xInclude schema
Member of
Contained by
May containEmpty element
Note

A namespace prefix may be used in order to specify the scheme as an alternative to specifying it via the scheme attribute: it takes precedence

Example
<p>The TEI defines several <soCalled>global</soCalled> attributes; their names include
<att>xml:id</att>, <att>rend</att>, <att>xml:lang</att>, <att>n</att>, <att>xml:space</att>,
and <att>xml:base</att>; <att scheme="XX">type</att> is not amongst them.</p>
Content model
<content>
 <dataRef key="teidata.name"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element att
{
   att.global.attributes,
   attribute scheme { teidata.enumerated }?,
   teidata.name
}

<author>

<author> in a bibliographic reference, contains the name(s) of an author, personal or corporate, of a work; for example in the same form as that provided by a recognized bibliographic name authority. [3.11.2.2. Titles, Authors, and Editors 2.2.1. The Title Statement]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref))
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Note

Particularly where cataloguing is likely to be based on the content of the header, it is advisable to use a generally recognized name authority file to supply the content for this element. The attributes key or ref may also be used to reference canonical information about the author(s) intended from any appropriate authority, such as a library catalogue or online resource.

In the case of a broadcast, use this element for the name of the company or network responsible for making the broadcast.

Where an author is unknown or unspecified, this element may contain text such as Unknown or Anonymous. When the appropriate TEI modules are in use, it may also contain detailed tagging of the names used for people, organizations or places, in particular where multiple names are given.

Example
<author>British Broadcasting Corporation</author>
<author>La Fayette, Marie Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne, comtesse de (1634–1693)</author>
<author>Anonymous</author>
<author>Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation</author>
<author>
 <persName>Beaumont, Francis</persName> and
<persName>John Fletcher</persName>
</author>
<author>
 <orgName key="BBC">British Broadcasting
   Corporation</orgName>: Radio 3 Network
</author>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element author
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.naming.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}

<authority>

<authority> (release authority) supplies the name of a person or other agency responsible for making a work available, other than a publisher or distributor. [2.2.4. Publication, Distribution, Licensing, etc.]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Example
<authority>John Smith</authority>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq.limited"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element authority { att.global.attributes, macro.phraseSeq.limited }

<availability>

<availability> supplies information about the availability of a text, for example any restrictions on its use or distribution, its copyright status, any licence applying to it, etc. [2.2.4. Publication, Distribution, Licensing, etc.]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.declarable (@default)
statussupplies a code identifying the current availability of the text.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
free
the text is freely available.
unknown
the status of the text is unknown. [Default] Deprecated. The value will no longer be a default after 2017-09-05.
restricted
the text is not freely available.
Member of
Contained by
core: bibl
May contain
core: p
header: licence
Note

A consistent format should be adopted

Example
<availability status="restricted">
 <p>Available for academic research purposes only.</p>
</availability>
<availability status="free">
 <p>In the public domain</p>
</availability>
<availability status="restricted">
 <p>Available under licence from the publishers.</p>
</availability>
Example
<availability>
 <licence target="http://opensource.org/licenses/MIT">
  <p>The MIT License
     applies to this document.</p>
  <p>Copyright (C) 2011 by The University of Victoria</p>
  <p>Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
     of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
     in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
     to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
     copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
     furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:</p>
  <p>The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
     all copies or substantial portions of the Software.</p>
  <p>THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
     IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
     FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
     AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
     LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
     OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
     THE SOFTWARE.</p>
 </licence>
</availability>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="1"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">

  <classRef key="model.availabilityPart"/>
  <classRef key="model.pLike"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element availability
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.declarable.attributes,
   attribute status { "free" | "unknown" | "restricted" }?,
   ( model.availabilityPart | model.pLike )+
}

<back>

<back> (back matter) contains any appendixes, etc. following the main part of a text. [4.7. Back Matter 4. Default Text Structure]
Moduletextstructure
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.declaring (@decls)
Contained by
textstructure: text
May contain
Note

Because cultural conventions differ as to which elements are grouped as back matter and which as front matter, the content models for the back and front elements are identical.

Example
<back>
 <div type="appendix">
  <head>The Golden Dream or, the Ingenuous Confession</head>
  <p>TO shew the Depravity of human Nature, and how apt the Mind is to be misled by Trinkets
     and false Appearances, Mrs. Two-Shoes does acknowledge, that after she became rich, she
     had like to have been, too fond of Money
<!-- .... -->
  </p>
 </div>
<!-- ... -->
 <div type="epistle">
  <head>A letter from the Printer, which he desires may be inserted</head>
  <salute>Sir.</salute>
  <p>I have done with your Copy, so you may return it to the Vatican, if you please;
  
<!-- ... -->
  </p>
 </div>
 <div type="advert">
  <head>The Books usually read by the Scholars of Mrs Two-Shoes are these and are sold at Mr
     Newbery's at the Bible and Sun in St Paul's Church-yard.</head>
  <list>
   <item n="1">The Christmas Box, Price 1d.</item>
   <item n="2">The History of Giles Gingerbread, 1d.</item>
<!-- ... -->
   <item n="42">A Curious Collection of Travels, selected from the Writers of all Nations,
       10 Vol, Pr. bound 1l.</item>
  </list>
 </div>
 <div type="advert">
  <head>By the KING's Royal Patent, Are sold by J. NEWBERY, at the Bible and Sun in St.
     Paul's Church-Yard.</head>
  <list>
   <item n="1">Dr. James's Powders for Fevers, the Small-Pox, Measles, Colds, &amp;c. 2s.
       6d</item>
   <item n="2">Dr. Hooper's Female Pills, 1s.</item>
<!-- ... -->
  </list>
 </div>
</back>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <alternate minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">

   <classRef key="model.frontPart"/>
   <classRef key="model.pLike.front"/>
   <classRef key="model.pLike"/>
   <classRef key="model.listLike"/>
   <classRef key="model.global"/>
  </alternate>
  <alternate minOccurs="0">
   <sequence>
    <classRef key="model.div1Like"/>
    <alternate minOccurs="0"
     maxOccurs="unbounded">

     <classRef key="model.frontPart"/>
     <classRef key="model.div1Like"/>
     <classRef key="model.global"/>
    </alternate>
   </sequence>
   <sequence>
    <classRef key="model.divLike"/>
    <alternate minOccurs="0"
     maxOccurs="unbounded">

     <classRef key="model.frontPart"/>
     <classRef key="model.divLike"/>
     <classRef key="model.global"/>
    </alternate>
   </sequence>
  </alternate>
  <sequence minOccurs="0">
   <classRef key="model.divBottomPart"/>
   <alternate minOccurs="0"
    maxOccurs="unbounded">

    <classRef key="model.divBottomPart"/>
    <classRef key="model.global"/>
   </alternate>
  </sequence>
 </sequence>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element back
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.declaring.attributes,
   (
      (
         model.frontPartmodel.pLike.frontmodel.pLikemodel.listLikemodel.global
      )*,
      (
         (
            model.div1Like,
            ( model.frontPart | model.div1Like | model.global )*
         )
       | ( model.divLike, ( model.frontPart | model.divLike | model.global )* )
      )?,
      ( model.divBottomPart, ( model.divBottomPart | model.global )* )?
   )
}

<bibl>

<bibl> (bibliographic citation) contains a loosely-structured bibliographic citation of which the sub-components may or may not be explicitly tagged. [3.11.1. Methods of Encoding Bibliographic References and Lists of References 2.2.7. The Source Description 15.3.2. Declarable Elements]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.declarable (@default) att.typed (@type, @subtype) att.sortable (@sortKey) att.docStatus (@status)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Note

Contains phrase-level elements, together with any combination of elements from the biblPart class

Example
<bibl>Blain, Clements and Grundy: Feminist Companion to Literature in English (Yale,
1990)</bibl>
Example
<bibl>
 <title level="a">The Interesting story of the Children in the Wood</title>. In
<author>Victor E Neuberg</author>, <title>The Penny Histories</title>.
<publisher>OUP</publisher>
 <date>1968</date>.
</bibl>
Example
<bibl type="articlesubtype="book_chapter"
 xml:id="carlin_2003">

 <author>
  <name>
   <surname>Carlin</surname>
     (<forename>Claire</forename>)</name>
 </author>,
<title level="a">The Staging of Impotence : France’s last
   congrès</title> dans
<bibl type="monogr">
  <title level="m">Theatrum mundi : studies in honor of Ronald W.
     Tobin</title>, éd.
 <editor>
   <name>
    <forename>Claire</forename>
    <surname>Carlin</surname>
   </name>
  </editor> et
 <editor>
   <name>
    <forename>Kathleen</forename>
    <surname>Wine</surname>
   </name>
  </editor>,
 <pubPlace>Charlottesville, Va.</pubPlace>,
 <publisher>Rookwood Press</publisher>,
 <date when="2003">2003</date>.
 </bibl>
</bibl>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">

  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.highlighted"/>
  <classRef key="model.pPart.data"/>
  <classRef key="model.pPart.edit"/>
  <classRef key="model.segLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.ptrLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.biblPart"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element bibl
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.declarable.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.sortable.attributes,
   att.docStatus.attributes,
   (
      text
    | model.gLikemodel.highlightedmodel.pPart.datamodel.pPart.editmodel.segLikemodel.ptrLikemodel.biblPartmodel.global
   )*
}

<biblScope>

<biblScope> (scope of bibliographic reference) defines the scope of a bibliographic reference, for example as a list of page numbers, or a named subdivision of a larger work. [3.11.2.5. Scopes and Ranges in Bibliographic Citations]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.citing (@unit, @from, @to)
Member of
Contained by
core: bibl
header: seriesStmt
May contain
Note

When a single page is being cited, use the from and to attributes with an identical value. When no clear endpoint is provided, the from attribute may be used without to; for example a citation such as ‘p. 3ff’ might be encoded <biblScope from="3">p. 2ff<biblScope>.

It is now considered good practice to supply this element as a sibling (rather than a child) of <imprint>, since it supplies information which does not constitute part of the imprint.

Example
<biblScope>pp 12–34</biblScope>
<biblScope unit="pagefrom="12to="34"/>
<biblScope unit="volume">II</biblScope>
<biblScope unit="page">12</biblScope>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element biblScope
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.citing.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}

<body>

<body> (text body) contains the whole body of a single unitary text, excluding any front or back matter. [4. Default Text Structure]
Moduletextstructure
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.declaring (@decls)
Contained by
textstructure: text
May contain
Example
<body>
 <l>Nu scylun hergan hefaenricaes uard</l>
 <l>metudæs maecti end his modgidanc</l>
 <l>uerc uuldurfadur sue he uundra gihuaes</l>
 <l>eci dryctin or astelidæ</l>
 <l>he aerist scop aelda barnum</l>
 <l>heben til hrofe haleg scepen.</l>
 <l>tha middungeard moncynnæs uard</l>
 <l>eci dryctin æfter tiadæ</l>
 <l>firum foldu frea allmectig</l>
 <trailer>primo cantauit Cædmon istud carmen.</trailer>
</body>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <classRef key="model.global"
   minOccurs="0maxOccurs="unbounded"/>

  <sequence minOccurs="0">
   <classRef key="model.divTop"/>
   <alternate minOccurs="0"
    maxOccurs="unbounded">

    <classRef key="model.global"/>
    <classRef key="model.divTop"/>
   </alternate>
  </sequence>
  <sequence minOccurs="0">
   <classRef key="model.divGenLike"/>
   <alternate minOccurs="0"
    maxOccurs="unbounded">

    <classRef key="model.global"/>
    <classRef key="model.divGenLike"/>
   </alternate>
  </sequence>
  <alternate>
   <sequence minOccurs="1"
    maxOccurs="unbounded">

    <classRef key="model.divLike"/>
    <alternate minOccurs="0"
     maxOccurs="unbounded">

     <classRef key="model.global"/>
     <classRef key="model.divGenLike"/>
    </alternate>
   </sequence>
   <sequence minOccurs="1"
    maxOccurs="unbounded">

    <classRef key="model.div1Like"/>
    <alternate minOccurs="0"
     maxOccurs="unbounded">

     <classRef key="model.global"/>
     <classRef key="model.divGenLike"/>
    </alternate>
   </sequence>
   <sequence>
    <sequence minOccurs="1"
     maxOccurs="unbounded">

     <classRef key="model.common"/>
     <classRef key="model.global"
      minOccurs="0maxOccurs="unbounded"/>

    </sequence>
    <alternate minOccurs="0">
     <sequence minOccurs="1"
      maxOccurs="unbounded">

      <classRef key="model.divLike"/>
      <alternate minOccurs="0"
       maxOccurs="unbounded">

       <classRef key="model.global"/>
       <classRef key="model.divGenLike"/>
      </alternate>
     </sequence>
     <sequence minOccurs="1"
      maxOccurs="unbounded">

      <classRef key="model.div1Like"/>
      <alternate minOccurs="0"
       maxOccurs="unbounded">

       <classRef key="model.global"/>
       <classRef key="model.divGenLike"/>
      </alternate>
     </sequence>
    </alternate>
   </sequence>
  </alternate>
  <sequence minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">

   <classRef key="model.divBottom"/>
   <classRef key="model.global"
    minOccurs="0maxOccurs="unbounded"/>

  </sequence>
 </sequence>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element body
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.declaring.attributes,
   (
      model.global*,
      ( model.divTop, ( model.global | model.divTop )* )?,
      ( model.divGenLike, ( model.global | model.divGenLike )* )?,
      (
         ( model.divLike, ( model.global | model.divGenLike )* )+
       | ( model.div1Like, ( model.global | model.divGenLike )* )+
       | (
            ( model.common, model.global* )+,
            (
               ( model.divLike, ( model.global | model.divGenLike )* )+
             | ( model.div1Like, ( model.global | model.divGenLike )* )+
            )?
         )
      ),
      ( model.divBottom, model.global* )*
   )
}

<byline>

<byline> contains the primary statement of responsibility given for a work on its title page or at the head or end of the work. [4.2.2. Openers and Closers 4.5. Front Matter]
Moduletextstructure
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
core: lg list
figures: figure table
May contain
Note

The byline on a title page may include either the name or a description for the document's author. Where the name is included, it may optionally be tagged using the docAuthor element.

Example
<byline>Written by a CITIZEN who continued all the
while in London. Never made publick before.</byline>
Example
<byline>Written from her own MEMORANDUMS</byline>
Example
<byline>By George Jones, Political Editor, in Washington</byline>
Example
<byline>BY
<docAuthor>THOMAS PHILIPOTT,</docAuthor>
Master of Arts,
(Somtimes)
Of Clare-Hall in Cambridge.</byline>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">

  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.phrase"/>
  <elementRef key="docAuthor"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element byline
{
   att.global.attributes,
   ( text | model.gLike | model.phrase | docAuthor | model.global )*
}

<catDesc>

<catDesc> (category description) describes some category within a taxonomy or text typology, either in the form of a brief prose description or in terms of the situational parameters used by the TEI formal <textDesc>. [2.3.7. The Classification Declaration]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Contained by
header: category
May contain
Example
<catDesc>Prose reportage</catDesc>
Example
<catDesc>
 <textDesc n="novel">
  <channel mode="w">print; part issues</channel>
  <constitution type="single"/>
  <derivation type="original"/>
  <domain type="art"/>
  <factuality type="fiction"/>
  <interaction type="none"/>
  <preparedness type="prepared"/>
  <purpose type="entertaindegree="high"/>
  <purpose type="informdegree="medium"/>
 </textDesc>
</catDesc>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">

  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.limitedPhrase"/>
  <classRef key="model.catDescPart"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element catDesc
{
   att.global.attributes,
   ( text | model.limitedPhrase | model.catDescPart )*
}

<category>

<category> contains an individual descriptive category, possibly nested within a superordinate category, within a user-defined taxonomy. [2.3.7. The Classification Declaration]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Contained by
May contain
core: desc gloss
Example
<category xml:id="b1">
 <catDesc>Prose reportage</catDesc>
</category>
Example
<category xml:id="b2">
 <catDesc>Prose </catDesc>
 <category xml:id="b11">
  <catDesc>journalism</catDesc>
 </category>
 <category xml:id="b12">
  <catDesc>fiction</catDesc>
 </category>
</category>
Example
<category xml:id="LIT">
 <catDesc xml:lang="pl">literatura piękna</catDesc>
 <catDesc xml:lang="en">fiction</catDesc>
 <category xml:id="LPROSE">
  <catDesc xml:lang="pl">proza</catDesc>
  <catDesc xml:lang="en">prose</catDesc>
 </category>
 <category xml:id="LPOETRY">
  <catDesc xml:lang="pl">poezja</catDesc>
  <catDesc xml:lang="en">poetry</catDesc>
 </category>
 <category xml:id="LDRAMA">
  <catDesc xml:lang="pl">dramat</catDesc>
  <catDesc xml:lang="en">drama</catDesc>
 </category>
</category>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <alternate>
   <elementRef key="catDescminOccurs="1"
    maxOccurs="unbounded"/>

   <alternate minOccurs="0"
    maxOccurs="unbounded">

    <classRef key="model.descLike"/>
    <classRef key="model.glossLike"/>
   </alternate>
  </alternate>
  <elementRef key="categoryminOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded"/>

 </sequence>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element category
{
   att.global.attributes,
   ( ( catDesc+ | ( model.descLike | model.glossLike )* ), category* )
}

<catRef>

<catRef> (category reference) specifies one or more defined categories within some taxonomy or text typology. [2.4.3. The Text Classification]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.pointing (@targetLang, @target, @evaluate)
schemeidentifies the classification scheme within which the set of categories concerned is defined, for example by a taxonomy element, or by some other resource.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.pointer
Contained by
header: textClass
May containEmpty element
Note

The scheme attribute needs to be supplied only if more than one taxonomy has been declared.

Example
<catRef scheme="#myTopics"
 target="#news #prov #sales2"/>

<!-- elsewhere -->
<taxonomy xml:id="myTopics">
 <category xml:id="news">
  <catDesc>Newspapers</catDesc>
 </category>
 <category xml:id="prov">
  <catDesc>Provincial</catDesc>
 </category>
 <category xml:id="sales2">
  <catDesc>Low to average annual sales</catDesc>
 </category>
</taxonomy>
Content model
<content>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element catRef
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.pointing.attributes,
   attribute scheme { teidata.pointer }?,
   empty
}

<cell>

<cell> contains one cell of a table. [14.1.1. TEI Tables]
Modulefigures
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.tableDecoration (@role, @rows, @cols)
Contained by
figures: row
May contain
Example
<row>
 <cell role="label">General conduct</cell>
 <cell role="data">Not satisfactory, on account of his great unpunctuality
   and inattention to duties</cell>
</row>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.specialPara"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element cell
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.tableDecoration.attributes,
   macro.specialPara
}

<change>

<change> documents a change or set of changes made during the production of a source document, or during the revision of an electronic file. [2.6. The Revision Description 2.4.1. Creation 11.7. Identifying Changes and Revisions]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.ascribed (@who) att.datable (@period) (att.datable.w3c (@when)) att.docStatus (@status) att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
targetpoints to one or more elements that belong to this change.
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.pointer separated by whitespace
Contained by
header: revisionDesc
May contain
Note

The who attribute may be used to point to any other element, but will typically specify a respStmt or <person> element elsewhere in the header, identifying the person responsible for the change and their role in making it.

It is recommended that changes be recorded with the most recent first. The status attribute may be used to indicate the status of a document following the change documented.

Example
<titleStmt>
 <title> ... </title>
 <editor xml:id="LDB">Lou Burnard</editor>
 <respStmt xml:id="BZ">
  <resp>copy editing</resp>
  <name>Brett Zamir</name>
 </respStmt>
</titleStmt>
<!-- ... -->
<revisionDesc status="published">
 <change who="#BZwhen="2008-02-02"
  status="public">
Finished chapter 23</change>
 <change who="#BZwhen="2008-01-02"
  status="draft">
Finished chapter 2</change>
 <change n="P2.2when="1991-12-21"
  who="#LDB">
Added examples to section 3</change>
 <change when="1991-11-11who="#MSM">Deleted chapter 10</change>
</revisionDesc>
Example
<profileDesc>
 <creation>
  <listChange>
   <change xml:id="DRAFT1">First draft in pencil</change>
   <change xml:id="DRAFT2"
    notBefore="1880-12-09">
First revision, mostly
       using green ink</change>
   <change xml:id="DRAFT3"
    notBefore="1881-02-13">
Final corrections as
       supplied to printer.</change>
  </listChange>
 </creation>
</profileDesc>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.specialPara"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element change
{
   att.ascribed.attributes,
   att.datable.attributes,
   att.docStatus.attributes,
   att.global.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   attribute target { list { teidata.pointer+ } }?,
   macro.specialPara
}

<choice>

<choice> groups a number of alternative encodings for the same point in a text. [3.4. Simple Editorial Changes]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Note

Because the children of a choice element all represent alternative ways of encoding the same sequence, it is natural to think of them as mutually exclusive. However, there may be cases where a full representation of a text requires the alternative encodings to be considered as parallel.

Note also that choice elements may self-nest.

Where the purpose of an encoding is to record multiple witnesses of a single work, rather than to identify multiple possible encoding decisions at a given point, the <app> element and associated elements discussed in section 12.1. The Apparatus Entry, Readings, and Witnesses should be preferred.

Example

An American encoding of Gulliver's Travels which retains the British spelling but also provides a version regularized to American spelling might be encoded as follows.

<p>Lastly, That, upon his solemn oath to observe all the above
articles, the said man-mountain shall have a daily allowance of
meat and drink sufficient for the support of <choice>
  <sic>1724</sic>
  <corr>1728</corr>
 </choice> of our subjects,
with free access to our royal person, and other marks of our
<choice>
  <orig>favour</orig>
  <reg>favor</reg>
 </choice>.</p>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">

  <classRef key="model.choicePart"/>
  <elementRef key="choice"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element choice { att.global.attributes, ( model.choicePart | choice )* }

<cit>

<cit> (cited quotation) contains a quotation from some other document, together with a bibliographic reference to its source. In a dictionary it may contain an example text with at least one occurrence of the word form, used in the sense being described, or a translation of the headword, or an example. [3.3.3. Quotation 4.3.1. Grouped Texts 9.3.5.1. Examples]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: interp interpGrp
figures: figure
linking: anchor
tagdocs: eg
Example
<cit>
 <q>and the breath of the whale is frequently attended with such an insupportable smell,
   as to bring on disorder of the brain.</q>
 <bibl>Ulloa's South America</bibl>
</cit>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="1"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">

  <classRef key="model.qLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.egLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.biblLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.ptrLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
  <classRef key="model.entryPart"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element cit
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   (
      model.qLikemodel.egLikemodel.biblLikemodel.ptrLikemodel.globalmodel.entryPart
   )+
}

<classCode>

<classCode> (classification code) contains the classification code used for this text in some standard classification system. [2.4.3. The Text Classification]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
schemeidentifies the classification system in use, as defined by, e.g. a taxonomy element, or some other resource.
Status Required
Datatype teidata.pointer
Contained by
header: textClass
May contain
Example
<classCode scheme="http://www.udc.org">410</classCode>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq.limited"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element classCode
{
   att.global.attributes,
   attribute scheme { teidata.pointer },
   macro.phraseSeq.limited
}

<classDecl>

<classDecl> (classification declarations) contains one or more taxonomies defining any classificatory codes used elsewhere in the text. [2.3.7. The Classification Declaration 2.3. The Encoding Description]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
header: encodingDesc
May contain
header: taxonomy
Example
<classDecl>
 <taxonomy xml:id="LCSH">
  <bibl>Library of Congress Subject Headings</bibl>
 </taxonomy>
</classDecl>
<!-- ... -->
<textClass>
 <keywords scheme="#LCSH">
  <term>Political science</term>
  <term>United States -- Politics and government —
     Revolution, 1775-1783</term>
 </keywords>
</textClass>
Content model
<content>
 <elementRef key="taxonomyminOccurs="1"
  maxOccurs="unbounded"/>

</content>
Schema Declaration
element classDecl { att.global.attributes, taxonomy+ }

<closer>

<closer> groups together salutations, datelines, and similar phrases appearing as a final group at the end of a division, especially of a letter. [4.2.2. Openers and Closers 4.2. Elements Common to All Divisions]
Moduletextstructure
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.written (@hand)
Member of
Contained by
core: lg list
figures: figure table
May contain
Example
<div type="letter">
 <p> perhaps you will favour me with a sight of it when convenient.</p>
 <closer>
  <salute>I remain, &amp;c. &amp;c.</salute>
  <signed>H. Colburn</signed>
 </closer>
</div>
Example
<div type="chapter">
 <p>
<!-- ... --> and his heart was going like mad and yes I said yes I will Yes.</p>
 <closer>
  <dateline>
   <name type="place">Trieste-Zürich-Paris,</name>
   <date>1914–1921</date>
  </dateline>
 </closer>
</div>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">

  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <elementRef key="signed"/>
  <elementRef key="dateline"/>
  <elementRef key="salute"/>
  <classRef key="model.phrase"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element closer
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.written.attributes,
   (
      text
    | model.gLikesigneddatelinesalutemodel.phrasemodel.global
   )*
}

<code>

<code> contains literal code from some formal language such as a programming language. [22.1.1. Phrase Level Terms]
Moduletagdocs
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
lang(formal language) a name identifying the formal language in which the code is expressed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.word
Member of
Contained by
May containCharacter data only
Example
<code lang="JAVA"> Size fCheckbox1Size = new Size();
fCheckbox1Size.Height = 500;
fCheckbox1Size.Width = 500;
xCheckbox1.setSize(fCheckbox1Size);
</code>
Content model
<content>
 <textNode/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element code { att.global.attributes, attribute lang { teidata.word }?, text }

<corr>

<corr> (correction) contains the correct form of a passage apparently erroneous in the copy text. [3.4.1. Apparent Errors]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.editLike (@evidence, @instant) (att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max, @confidence)) ) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Example

If all that is desired is to call attention to the fact that the copy text has been corrected, corr may be used alone:

I don't know,
Juan. It's so far in the past now — how <corr>can we</corr> prove
or disprove anyone's theories?
Example

It is also possible, using the choice and sic elements, to provide an uncorrected reading:

I don't know, Juan. It's so far in the past now —
how <choice>
 <sic>we can</sic>
 <corr>can we</corr>
</choice> prove or
disprove anyone's theories?
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element corr
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.editLike.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   macro.paraContent
}

<creation>

<creation> contains information about the creation of a text. [2.4.1. Creation 2.4. The Profile Description]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.datable (@period) (att.datable.w3c (@when))
Member of
Contained by
header: profileDesc
May contain
Note

The creation element may be used to record details of a text's creation, e.g. the date and place it was composed, if these are of interest.

It may also contain a more structured account of the various stages or revisions associated with the evolution of a text; this should be encoded using the <listChange> element. It should not be confused with the publicationStmt element, which records date and place of publication.

Example
<creation>
 <date>Before 1987</date>
</creation>
Example
<creation>
 <date when="1988-07-10">10 July 1988</date>
</creation>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">

  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.limitedPhrase"/>
  <elementRef key="listChange"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element creation
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.datable.attributes,
   ( text | model.limitedPhrase | listChange )*
}

<date>

<date> contains a date in any format. [3.5.4. Dates and Times 2.2.4. Publication, Distribution, Licensing, etc. 2.6. The Revision Description 3.11.2.4. Imprint, Size of a Document, and Reprint Information 15.2.3. The Setting Description 13.3.6. Dates and Times]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.datable (@period) (att.datable.w3c (@when)) att.editLike (@evidence, @instant) (att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max, @confidence)) ) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Example
<date when="1980-02">early February 1980</date>
Example
Given on the <date when="1977-06-12">Twelfth Day
of June in the Year of Our Lord One Thousand Nine Hundred and Seventy-seven of the Republic
the Two Hundredth and first and of the University the Eighty-Sixth.</date>
Example
<date when="1990-09">September 1990</date>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">

  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.phrase"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element date
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.datable.attributes,
   att.editLike.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   ( text | model.gLike | model.phrase | model.global )*
}

<dateline>

<dateline> contains a brief description of the place, date, time, etc. of production of a letter, newspaper story, or other work, prefixed or suffixed to it as a kind of heading or trailer. [4.2.2. Openers and Closers]
Moduletextstructure
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
core: lg list
figures: figure table
textstructure: body closer div front group opener
May contain
Example
<dateline>Walden, this 29. of August 1592</dateline>
Example
<div type="chapter">
 <p>
<!-- ... --> and his heart was going like mad and yes I said yes I will Yes.</p>
 <closer>
  <dateline>
   <name type="place">Trieste-Zürich-Paris,</name>
   <date>1914–1921</date>
  </dateline>
 </closer>
</div>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">

  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.phrase"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
  <elementRef key="docDate"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element dateline
{
   att.global.attributes,
   ( text | model.gLike | model.phrase | model.global | docDate )*
}

<del>

<del> (deletion) contains a letter, word, or passage deleted, marked as deleted, or otherwise indicated as superfluous or spurious in the copy text by an author, scribe, or a previous annotator or corrector. [3.4.3. Additions, Deletions, and Omissions]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.transcriptional (@status, @cause, @seq) (att.editLike (@evidence, @instant) (att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max, @confidence)) ) ) (att.written (@hand)) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Note

This element should be used for deletion of shorter sequences of text, typically single words or phrases. The <delSpan> element should be used for longer sequences of text, for those containing structural subdivisions, and for those containing overlapping additions and deletions.

The text deleted must be at least partially legible in order for the encoder to be able to transcribe it (unless it is restored in a <supplied> tag). Illegible or lost text within a deletion may be marked using the gap tag to signal that text is present but has not been transcribed, or is no longer visible. Attributes on the gap element may be used to indicate how much text is omitted, the reason for omitting it, etc. If text is not fully legible, the unclear element (available when using the additional tagset for transcription of primary sources) should be used to signal the areas of text which cannot be read with confidence in a similar way.

Degrees of uncertainty over what can still be read, or whether a deletion was intended may be indicated by use of the <certainty> element (see 21. Certainty, Precision, and Responsibility).

There is a clear distinction in the TEI between del and <surplus> on the one hand and gap or unclear on the other. del indicates a deletion present in the source being transcribed, which states the author's or a later scribe's intent to cancel or remove text. <surplus> indicates material present in the source being transcribed which should have been so deleted, but which is not in fact. gap or unclear, by contrast, signal an editor's or encoder's decision to omit something or their inability to read the source text. See sections 11.3.1.7. Text Omitted from or Supplied in the Transcription and 11.3.3.2. Use of the gap, del, damage, unclear, and supplied Elements in Combination for the relationship between these and other related elements used in detailed transcription.

Example
<l>
 <del rend="overtyped">Mein</del> Frisch <del rend="overstriketype="primary">schwebt</del>
weht der Wind
</l>
Example
<del rend="overstrike">
 <gap reason="illegiblequantity="5"
  unit="character"/>

</del>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element del
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.transcriptional.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   macro.paraContent
}

<desc>

<desc> (description) contains a brief description of the object documented by its parent element, typically a documentation element or an entity. [22.4.1. Description of Components]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.translatable (@versionDate) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Note

When used in a specification element such as <elementSpec>, TEI convention requires that this be expressed as a finite clause, begining with an active verb.

Example
<desc>contains a brief description of the purpose and intended use of a documentation element, or a brief characterisation of a parent entity </desc>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.limitedContent"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element desc
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.translatable.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   macro.limitedContent
}

<distributor>

<distributor> supplies the name of a person or other agency responsible for the distribution of a text. [2.2.4. Publication, Distribution, Licensing, etc.]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
core: bibl
May contain
Example
<distributor>Oxford Text Archive</distributor>
<distributor>Redwood and Burn Ltd</distributor>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element distributor { att.global.attributes, macro.phraseSeq }

<div>

<div> (text division) contains a subdivision of the front, body, or back of a text. [4.1. Divisions of the Body]
Moduletextstructure
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.divLike (@org, @sample) (att.fragmentable (@part)) att.typed (@type, @subtype) att.declaring (@decls) att.written (@hand)
Member of
Contained by
textstructure: back body div front
May contain
Example
<body>
 <div type="part">
  <head>Fallacies of Authority</head>
  <p>The subject of which is Authority in various shapes, and the object, to repress all
     exercise of the reasoning faculty.</p>
  <div n="1type="chapter">
   <head>The Nature of Authority</head>
   <p>With reference to any proposed measures having for their object the greatest
       happiness of the greatest number [...]</p>
   <div n="1.1type="section">
    <head>Analysis of Authority</head>
    <p>What on any given occasion is the legitimate weight or influence to be attached to
         authority [...] </p>
   </div>
   <div n="1.2type="section">
    <head>Appeal to Authority, in What Cases Fallacious.</head>
    <p>Reference to authority is open to the charge of fallacy when [...] </p>
   </div>
  </div>
 </div>
</body>
Schematron

<s:report test="ancestor::tei:l"> Abstract model violation: Lines may not contain higher-level structural elements such as div.
</s:report>
Schematron

<s:report test="ancestor::tei:p or ancestor::tei:ab and not(ancestor::tei:floatingText)"> Abstract model violation: p and ab may not contain higher-level structural elements such as div.
</s:report>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <alternate minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">

   <classRef key="model.divTop"/>
   <classRef key="model.global"/>
  </alternate>
  <sequence minOccurs="0">
   <alternate>
    <sequence minOccurs="1"
     maxOccurs="unbounded">

     <alternate>
      <classRef key="model.divLike"/>
      <classRef key="model.divGenLike"/>
     </alternate>
     <classRef key="model.global"
      minOccurs="0maxOccurs="unbounded"/>

    </sequence>
    <sequence>
     <sequence minOccurs="1"
      maxOccurs="unbounded">

      <classRef key="model.common"/>
      <classRef key="model.global"
       minOccurs="0maxOccurs="unbounded"/>

     </sequence>
     <sequence minOccurs="0"
      maxOccurs="unbounded">

      <alternate>
       <classRef key="model.divLike"/>
       <classRef key="model.divGenLike"/>
      </alternate>
      <classRef key="model.global"
       minOccurs="0maxOccurs="unbounded"/>

     </sequence>
    </sequence>
   </alternate>
   <sequence minOccurs="0"
    maxOccurs="unbounded">

    <classRef key="model.divBottom"/>
    <classRef key="model.global"
     minOccurs="0maxOccurs="unbounded"/>

   </sequence>
  </sequence>
 </sequence>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element div
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.divLike.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.declaring.attributes,
   att.written.attributes,
   (
      ( model.divTop | model.global )*,
      (
         (
            ( ( model.divLike | model.divGenLike ), model.global* )+
          | (
               ( model.common, model.global* )+,
               ( ( model.divLike | model.divGenLike ), model.global* )*
            )
         ),
         ( model.divBottom, model.global* )*
      )?
   )
}

<divGen>

<divGen> (automatically generated text division) indicates the location at which a textual division generated automatically by a text-processing application is to appear. [3.8.2. Index Entries]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
typespecifies what type of generated text division (e.g. index, table of contents, etc.) is to appear. Sample values include: 1] index; 2] toc; 3] figlist; 4] tablist
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Sample values include:
index
an index is to be generated and inserted at this point.
toc
a table of contents
figlist
a list of figures
tablist
a list of tables
Note

Valid values are application-dependent; those shown are of obvious utility in document production, but are by no means exhaustive.

Member of
Contained by
textstructure: back body div front
May contain
core: head
Note

This element is intended primarily for use in document production or manipulation, rather than in the transcription of pre-existing materials; it makes it easier to specify the location of indices, tables of contents, etc., to be generated by text preparation or word processing software.

Example

One use for this element is to allow document preparation software to generate an index and insert it in the appropriate place in the output. The example below assumes that the indexName attribute on index elements in the text has been used to specify index entries for the two generated indexes, named NAMES and THINGS:

<back>
 <div1 type="backmat">
  <head>Bibliography</head>
<!-- ... -->
 </div1>
 <div1 type="backmat">
  <head>Indices</head>
  <divGen n="Index Nominumtype="NAMES"/>
  <divGen n="Index Rerumtype="THINGS"/>
 </div1>
</back>
Example

Another use for divGen is to specify the location of an automatically produced table of contents:

<front>
<!--<titlePage>...</titlePage>-->
 <divGen type="toc"/>
 <div>
  <head>Preface</head>
  <p> ... </p>
 </div>
</front>
Content model
<content>
 <classRef key="model.headLike"
  minOccurs="0maxOccurs="unbounded"/>

</content>
Schema Declaration
element divGen
{
   att.global.attributes,
   attribute type { teidata.enumerated }?,
   model.headLike*
}

<docAuthor>

<docAuthor> (document author) contains the name of the author of the document, as given on the title page (often but not always contained in a byline). [4.6. Title Pages]
Moduletextstructure
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.canonical (@key, @ref)
Member of
Contained by
core: lg list
figures: figure table
May contain
Note

The document author's name often occurs within a byline, but the docAuthor element may be used whether the byline element is used or not. It should be used only for the author(s) of the entire document, not for author(s) of any subset or part of it. (Attributions of authorship of a subset or part of the document, for example of a chapter in a textbook or an article in a newspaper, may be encoded with byline without docAuthor.)

Example
<titlePage>
 <docTitle>
  <titlePart>Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, in Four
     Parts.</titlePart>
 </docTitle>
 <byline> By <docAuthor>Lemuel Gulliver</docAuthor>, First a Surgeon,
   and then a Captain of several Ships</byline>
</titlePage>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element docAuthor
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.canonical.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}

<docDate>

<docDate> (document date) contains the date of a document, as given on a title page or in a dateline. [4.6. Title Pages]
Moduletextstructure
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
whengives the value of the date in standard form, i.e. YYYY-MM-DD.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.temporal.w3c
Note

For simple dates, the when attribute should give the Gregorian or proleptic Gregorian date in one of the formats specified in XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes Second Edition.

Member of
Contained by
May contain
Note

Cf. the general date element in the core tag set. This specialized element is provided for convenience in marking and processing the date of the documents, since it is likely to require specialized handling for many applications. It should be used only for the date of the entire document, not for any subset or part of it.

Example
<docImprint>Oxford, Clarendon Press, <docDate>1987</docDate>
</docImprint>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element docDate
{
   att.global.attributes,
   attribute when { teidata.temporal.w3c }?,
   macro.phraseSeq
}

<docEdition>

<docEdition> (document edition) contains an edition statement as presented on a title page of a document. [4.6. Title Pages]
Moduletextstructure
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
textstructure: back front titlePage
May contain
Note

Cf. the edition element of bibliographic citation. As usual, the shorter name has been given to the more frequent element.

Example
<docEdition>The Third edition Corrected</docEdition>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element docEdition { att.global.attributes, macro.paraContent }

<docImprint>

<docImprint> (document imprint) contains the imprint statement (place and date of publication, publisher name), as given (usually) at the foot of a title page. [4.6. Title Pages]
Moduletextstructure
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
textstructure: back front titlePage
May contain
Note

Cf. the <imprint> element of bibliographic citations. As with title, author, and editions, the shorter name is reserved for the element likely to be used more often.

Example
<docImprint>Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1987</docImprint>
Imprints may be somewhat more complex:
<docImprint>
 <pubPlace>London</pubPlace>
Printed for <name>E. Nutt</name>,
at
<pubPlace>Royal Exchange</pubPlace>;
<name>J. Roberts</name> in
<pubPlace>wick-Lane</pubPlace>;
<name>A. Dodd</name> without
<pubPlace>Temple-Bar</pubPlace>;
and <name>J. Graves</name> in
<pubPlace>St. James's-street.</pubPlace>
 <date>1722.</date>
</docImprint>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">

  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.phrase"/>
  <elementRef key="pubPlace"/>
  <elementRef key="docDate"/>
  <elementRef key="publisher"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element docImprint
{
   att.global.attributes,
   (
      text
    | model.gLikemodel.phrasepubPlacedocDatepublishermodel.global
   )*
}

<docTitle>

<docTitle> (document title) contains the title of a document, including all its constituents, as given on a title page. [4.6. Title Pages]
Moduletextstructure
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.canonical (@key, @ref)
Member of
Contained by
textstructure: back front titlePage
May contain
analysis: interp interpGrp
figures: figure
linking: anchor
textstructure: titlePart
Example
<docTitle>
 <titlePart type="main">The DUNCIAD, VARIOURVM.</titlePart>
 <titlePart type="sub">WITH THE PROLEGOMENA of SCRIBLERUS.</titlePart>
</docTitle>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <classRef key="model.global"
   minOccurs="0maxOccurs="unbounded"/>

  <sequence minOccurs="1"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">

   <elementRef key="titlePart"/>
   <classRef key="model.global"
    minOccurs="0maxOccurs="unbounded"/>

  </sequence>
 </sequence>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element docTitle
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.canonical.attributes,
   ( model.global*, ( titlePart, model.global* )+ )
}

<edition>

<edition> describes the particularities of one edition of a text. [2.2.2. The Edition Statement]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
core: bibl
header: editionStmt
May contain
Example
<edition>First edition <date>Oct 1990</date>
</edition>
<edition n="S2">Students' edition</edition>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element edition { att.global.attributes, macro.phraseSeq }

<editionStmt>

<editionStmt> (edition statement) groups information relating to one edition of a text. [2.2.2. The Edition Statement 2.2. The File Description]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Contained by
header: fileDesc
May contain
Example
<editionStmt>
 <edition n="S2">Students' edition</edition>
 <respStmt>
  <resp>Adapted by </resp>
  <name>Elizabeth Kirk</name>
 </respStmt>
</editionStmt>
Example
<editionStmt>
 <p>First edition, <date>Michaelmas Term, 1991.</date>
 </p>
</editionStmt>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate>
  <classRef key="model.pLikeminOccurs="1"
   maxOccurs="unbounded"/>

  <sequence>
   <elementRef key="edition"/>
   <classRef key="model.respLike"
    minOccurs="0maxOccurs="unbounded"/>

  </sequence>
 </alternate>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element editionStmt
{
   att.global.attributes,
   ( model.pLike+ | ( edition, model.respLike* ) )
}

<editor>

<editor> contains a secondary statement of responsibility for a bibliographic item, for example the name of an individual, institution or organization, (or of several such) acting as editor, compiler, translator, etc. [3.11.2.2. Titles, Authors, and Editors]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref))
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Note

A consistent format should be adopted.

Particularly where cataloguing is likely to be based on the content of the header, it is advisable to use generally recognized authority lists for the exact form of personal names.

Example
<editor>Eric Johnson</editor>
<editor role="illustrator">John Tenniel</editor>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element editor
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.naming.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}

<editorialDecl>

<editorialDecl> (editorial practice declaration) provides details of editorial principles and practices applied during the encoding of a text. [2.3.3. The Editorial Practices Declaration 2.3. The Encoding Description 15.3.2. Declarable Elements]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.declarable (@default)
Member of
Contained by
header: encodingDesc
May contain
core: p
Example
<editorialDecl>
 <p>All words converted to Modern American spelling using
   Websters 9th Collegiate dictionary
 </p>
 <p>All opening quotation marks converted to “ all closing
   quotation marks converted to &amp;cdq;.</p>
</editorialDecl>
Content model
<content/>
Schema Declaration
element editorialDecl
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.declarable.attributes,
   model.pLike+
}

<eg>

<eg> (example) contains any kind of illustrative example. [22.5. Element Specifications 22.5.4. Attribute List Specification]
Moduletagdocs
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Note

If the example contains material in XML markup, either it must be enclosed within a CDATA marked section, or character entity references must be used to represent the markup delimiters. If the example contains well-formed XML, it should be marked using the more specific <egXML> element.

Example
<p>The
<gi>term</gi> element is declared using the following syntax:
<eg><![CDATA[<!ELEMENT term (%phrase.content;)>]]</eg>
</p>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element eg { att.global.attributes, macro.phraseSeq }

<emph>

<emph> (emphasized) marks words or phrases which are stressed or emphasized for linguistic or rhetorical effect. [3.3.2.2. Emphatic Words and Phrases 3.3.2. Emphasis, Foreign Words, and Unusual Language]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Example
You took the car and did <emph>what</emph>?!!
Example
<q>What it all comes to is this,</q> he said.
<q>
 <emph>What
   does Christopher Robin do in the morning nowadays?</emph>
</q>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element emph { att.global.attributes, macro.paraContent }

<encodingDesc>

<encodingDesc> (encoding description) documents the relationship between an electronic text and the source or sources from which it was derived. [2.3. The Encoding Description 2.1.1. The TEI Header and Its Components]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
header: teiHeader
May contain
Example
<encodingDesc>
 <p>Basic encoding, capturing lexical information only. All
   hyphenation, punctuation, and variant spellings normalized. No
   formatting or layout information preserved.</p>
</encodingDesc>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="1"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">

  <classRef key="model.encodingDescPart"/>
  <classRef key="model.pLike"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element encodingDesc
{
   att.global.attributes,
   ( model.encodingDescPart | model.pLike )+
}

<epigraph>

<epigraph> contains a quotation, anonymous or attributed, appearing at the start or end of a section or on a title page. [4.2.3. Arguments, Epigraphs, and Postscripts 4.2. Elements Common to All Divisions 4.6. Title Pages]
Moduletextstructure
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
core: lg list
figures: figure table
May contain
Example
<epigraph xml:lang="la">
 <cit>
  <bibl>Lucret.</bibl>
  <quote>
   <l part="F">petere inde coronam,</l>
   <l>Vnde prius nulli velarint tempora Musae.</l>
  </quote>
 </cit>
</epigraph>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">

  <classRef key="model.common"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element epigraph { att.global.attributes, ( model.common | model.global )* }

<expan>

<expan> (expansion) contains the expansion of an abbreviation. [3.5.5. Abbreviations and Their Expansions]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.editLike (@evidence, @instant) (att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max, @confidence)) )
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Note

The content of this element should be the expanded abbreviation, usually (but not always) a complete word or phrase. The <ex> element provided by the transcr module may be used to mark up sequences of letters supplied within such an expansion.

Example
The address is Southmoor
<choice>
 <expan>Road</expan>
 <abbr>Rd</abbr>
</choice>
Example
<choice xml:lang="la">
 <abbr>Imp</abbr>
 <expan>Imp<ex>erator</ex>
 </expan>
</choice>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element expan
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.editLike.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}

<extent>

<extent> describes the approximate size of a text stored on some carrier medium or of some other object, digital or non-digital, specified in any convenient units. [2.2.3. Type and Extent of File 2.2. The File Description 3.11.2.4. Imprint, Size of a Document, and Reprint Information 10.7.1. Object Description]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
core: bibl
header: fileDesc
May contain
Example
<extent>3200 sentences</extent>
<extent>between 10 and 20 Mb</extent>
<extent>ten 3.5 inch high density diskettes</extent>
Example

The <measure> element may be used to supply normalised or machine tractable versions of the size or sizes concerned.

<extent>
 <measure unit="MiBquantity="4.2">About four megabytes</measure>
 <measure unit="pagesquantity="245">245 pages of source
   material</measure>
</extent>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element extent { att.global.attributes, macro.phraseSeq }

<figDesc>

<figDesc> (description of figure) contains a brief prose description of the appearance or content of a graphic figure, for use when documenting an image without displaying it. [14.4. Specific Elements for Graphic Images]
Modulefigures
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Contained by
figures: figure
May contain
Note

This element is intended for use as an alternative to the content of its parent figure element ; for example, to display when the image is required but the equipment in use cannot display graphic images. It may also be used for indexing or documentary purposes.

Example
<figure>
 <graphic url="emblem1.png"/>
 <head>Emblemi d'Amore</head>
 <figDesc>A pair of naked winged cupids, each holding a
   flaming torch, in a rural setting.</figDesc>
</figure>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.limitedContent"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element figDesc { att.global.attributes, macro.limitedContent }

<figure>

<figure> groups elements representing or containing graphic information such as an illustration, formula, or figure. [14.4. Specific Elements for Graphic Images]
Modulefigures
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.placement (@place) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Example
<figure>
 <head>The View from the Bridge</head>
 <figDesc>A Whistleresque view showing four or five sailing boats in the foreground, and a
   series of buoys strung out between them.</figDesc>
 <graphic url="http://www.example.org/fig1.png"
  scale="0.5"/>

</figure>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">

  <classRef key="model.headLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.common"/>
  <elementRef key="figDesc"/>
  <classRef key="model.graphicLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
  <classRef key="model.divBottom"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element figure
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.placement.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   (
      model.headLikemodel.commonfigDescmodel.graphicLikemodel.globalmodel.divBottom
   )*
}

<fileDesc>

<fileDesc> (file description) contains a full bibliographic description of an electronic file. [2.2. The File Description 2.1.1. The TEI Header and Its Components]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Contained by
header: teiHeader
May contain
Note

The major source of information for those seeking to create a catalogue entry or bibliographic citation for an electronic file. As such, it provides a title and statements of responsibility together with details of the publication or distribution of the file, of any series to which it belongs, and detailed bibliographic notes for matters not addressed elsewhere in the header. It also contains a full bibliographic description for the source or sources from which the electronic text was derived.

Example
<fileDesc>
 <titleStmt>
  <title>The shortest possible TEI document</title>
 </titleStmt>
 <publicationStmt>
  <p>Distributed as part of TEI P5</p>
 </publicationStmt>
 <sourceDesc>
  <p>No print source exists: this is an original digital text</p>
 </sourceDesc>
</fileDesc>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <sequence>
   <elementRef key="titleStmt"/>
   <elementRef key="editionStmt"
    minOccurs="0"/>

   <elementRef key="extentminOccurs="0"/>
   <elementRef key="publicationStmt"/>
   <elementRef key="seriesStmt"
    minOccurs="0"/>

   <elementRef key="notesStmt"
    minOccurs="0"/>

  </sequence>
  <elementRef key="sourceDesc"
   minOccurs="1maxOccurs="unbounded"/>

 </sequence>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element fileDesc
{
   att.global.attributes,
   (
      (
         titleStmt,
         editionStmt?,
         extent?,
         publicationStmt,
         seriesStmt?,
         notesStmt?
      ),
      sourceDesc+
   )
}

<foreign>

<foreign> identifies a word or phrase as belonging to some language other than that of the surrounding text. [3.3.2.1. Foreign Words or Expressions]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Note

The global xml:lang attribute should be supplied for this element to identify the language of the word or phrase marked. As elsewhere, its value should be a language tag as defined in 6.1. Language Identification.

This element is intended for use only where no other element is available to mark the phrase or words concerned. The global xml:lang attribute should be used in preference to this element where it is intended to mark the language of the whole of some text element.

The <distinct> element may be used to identify phrases belonging to sublanguages or registers not generally regarded as true languages.

Example
This is
heathen Greek to you still? Your <foreign xml:lang="la">lapis
philosophicus</foreign>?
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element foreign { att.global.attributes, macro.phraseSeq }

<formula>

<formula> contains a mathematical or other formula. [14.2. Formulæ and Mathematical Expressions]
Modulefigures
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.notated (@notation)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
core: graphic hi
figures: formula
character data
Example
<formula notation="tex">$E=mc^2$</formula>
Example
<formula notation="none">E=mc<hi rend="sup">2</hi>
</formula>
Example
<formula notation="mathml">
 <m:math>
  <m:mi>E</m:mi>
  <m:mo>=</m:mo>
  <m:mi>m</m:mi>
  <m:msup>
   <m:mrow>
    <m:mi>c</m:mi>
   </m:mrow>
   <m:mrow>
    <m:mn>2</m:mn>
   </m:mrow>
  </m:msup>
 </m:math>
</formula>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">

  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.graphicLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.hiLike"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element formula
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.notated.attributes,
   ( text | model.graphicLike | model.hiLike )*
}

<front>

<front> (front matter) contains any prefatory matter (headers, abstracts, title page, prefaces, dedications, etc.) found at the start of a document, before the main body. [4.6. Title Pages 4. Default Text Structure]
Moduletextstructure
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.declaring (@decls)
Contained by
textstructure: text
May contain
Note

Because cultural conventions differ as to which elements are grouped as front matter and which as back matter, the content models for the front and back elements are identical.

Example
<front>
 <epigraph>
  <quote>Nam Sibyllam quidem Cumis ego ipse oculis meis vidi in ampulla
     pendere, et cum illi pueri dicerent: <q xml:lang="gr">Σίβυλλα τί
       θέλεις</q>; respondebat illa: <q xml:lang="gr">ὰποθανεῖν θέλω.</q>
  </quote>
 </epigraph>
 <div type="dedication">
  <p>For Ezra Pound <q xml:lang="it">il miglior fabbro.</q>
  </p>
 </div>
</front>
Example
<front>
 <div type="dedication">
  <p>To our three selves</p>
 </div>
 <div type="preface">
  <head>Author's Note</head>
  <p>All the characters in this book are purely imaginary, and if the
     author has used names that may suggest a reference to living persons
     she has done so inadvertently. ...</p>
 </div>
</front>
Example
<front>
 <div type="abstract">
  <div>
   <head> BACKGROUND:</head>
   <p>Food insecurity can put children at greater risk of obesity because
       of altered food choices and nonuniform consumption patterns.</p>
  </div>
  <div>
   <head> OBJECTIVE:</head>
   <p>We examined the association between obesity and both child-level
       food insecurity and personal food insecurity in US children.</p>
  </div>
  <div>
   <head> DESIGN:</head>
   <p>Data from 9,701 participants in the National Health and Nutrition
       Examination Survey, 2001-2010, aged 2 to 11 years were analyzed.
       Child-level food insecurity was assessed with the US Department of
       Agriculture's Food Security Survey Module based on eight
       child-specific questions. Personal food insecurity was assessed with
       five additional questions. Obesity was defined, using physical
       measurements, as body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) greater than
       or equal to the age- and sex-specific 95th percentile of the Centers
       for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Logistic
       regressions adjusted for sex, race/ethnic group, poverty level, and
       survey year were conducted to describe associations between obesity
       and food insecurity.</p>
  </div>
  <div>
   <head> RESULTS:</head>
   <p>Obesity was significantly associated with personal food insecurity
       for children aged 6 to 11 years (odds ratio=1.81; 95% CI 1.33 to
       2.48), but not in children aged 2 to 5 years (odds ratio=0.88; 95%
       CI 0.51 to 1.51). Child-level food insecurity was not associated
       with obesity among 2- to 5-year-olds or 6- to 11-year-olds.</p>
  </div>
  <div>
   <head> CONCLUSIONS:</head>
   <p>Personal food insecurity is associated with an increased risk of
       obesity only in children aged 6 to 11 years. Personal
       food-insecurity measures may give different results than aggregate
       food-insecurity measures in children.</p>
  </div>
 </div>
</front>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <alternate minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">

   <classRef key="model.frontPart"/>
   <classRef key="model.pLike"/>
   <classRef key="model.pLike.front"/>
   <classRef key="model.global"/>
  </alternate>
  <sequence minOccurs="0">
   <alternate>
    <sequence>
     <classRef key="model.div1Like"/>
     <alternate minOccurs="0"
      maxOccurs="unbounded">

      <classRef key="model.div1Like"/>
      <classRef key="model.frontPart"/>
      <classRef key="model.global"/>
     </alternate>
    </sequence>
    <sequence>
     <classRef key="model.divLike"/>
     <alternate minOccurs="0"
      maxOccurs="unbounded">

      <classRef key="model.divLike"/>
      <classRef key="model.frontPart"/>
      <classRef key="model.global"/>
     </alternate>
    </sequence>
   </alternate>
   <sequence minOccurs="0">
    <classRef key="model.divBottom"/>
    <alternate minOccurs="0"
     maxOccurs="unbounded">

     <classRef key="model.divBottom"/>
     <classRef key="model.global"/>
    </alternate>
   </sequence>
  </sequence>
 </sequence>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element front
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.declaring.attributes,
   (
      ( model.frontPart | model.pLike | model.pLike.front | model.global )*,
      (
         (
            (
               model.div1Like,
               ( model.div1Like | model.frontPart | model.global )*
            )
          | (
               model.divLike,
               ( model.divLike | model.frontPart | model.global )*
            )
         ),
         ( model.divBottom, ( model.divBottom | model.global )* )?
      )?
   )
}

<funder>

<funder> (funding body) specifies the name of an individual, institution, or organization responsible for the funding of a project or text. [2.2.1. The Title Statement]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.canonical (@key, @ref)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Note

Funders provide financial support for a project; they are distinct from sponsors (see element sponsor), who provide intellectual support and authority.

Example
<funder>The National Endowment for the Humanities, an independent federal agency</funder>
<funder>Directorate General XIII of the Commission of the European Communities</funder>
<funder>The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation</funder>
<funder>The Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada</funder>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq.limited"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element funder
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.canonical.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq.limited
}

<gap>

<gap> indicates a point where material has been omitted in a transcription, whether for editorial reasons described in the TEI header, as part of sampling practice, or because the material is illegible, invisible, or inaudible. [3.4.3. Additions, Deletions, and Omissions]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.timed (@start, @end) att.editLike (@evidence, @instant) (att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max, @confidence)) )
reasongives the reason for omission. Sample values include sampling, inaudible, irrelevant, cancelled.
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.word separated by whitespace
handin the case of text omitted from the transcription because of deliberate deletion by an identifiable hand, indicates the hand which made the deletion.
Deprecatedwill be removed on 2017-08-01
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.pointer
agentin the case of text omitted because of damage, categorizes the cause of the damage, if it can be identified. Sample values include: 1] rubbing; 2] mildew; 3] smoke
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Sample values include:
rubbing
damage results from rubbing of the leaf edges
mildew
damage results from mildew on the leaf surface
smoke
damage results from smoke
Member of
Contained by
May contain
core: desc
Note

The gap, unclear, and del core tag elements may be closely allied in use with the <damage> and <supplied> elements, available when using the additional tagset for transcription of primary sources. See section 11.3.3.2. Use of the gap, del, damage, unclear, and supplied Elements in Combination for discussion of which element is appropriate for which circumstance.

The gap tag simply signals the editors decision to omit or inability to transcribe a span of text. Other information, such as the interpretation that text was deliberately erased or covered, should be indicated using the relevant tags, such as del in the case of deliberate deletion.

Example
<gap quantity="4unit="chars"
 reason="illegible"/>
Example
<gap quantity="1unit="essay"
 reason="sampling"/>
Example
<del>
 <gap atLeast="4atMost="8unit="chars"
  reason="illegible"/>

</del>
Example
<gap extent="several linesreason="lost"/>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">

  <classRef key="model.descLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.certLike"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element gap
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.timed.attributes,
   att.editLike.attributes,
   attribute reason { list { teidata.word+ } }?,
   attribute hand { teidata.pointer }?,
   attribute agent { teidata.enumerated }?,
   ( model.descLike | model.certLike )*
}

<gi>

<gi> (element name) contains the name (generic identifier) of an element. [22. Documentation Elements 22.5. Element Specifications]
Moduletagdocs
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
schemesupplies the name of the scheme in which this name is defined. Sample values include: 1] TEI; 2] DBK(docbook) ; 3] XX(unknown) ; 4] Schematron; 5] HTML
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Sample values include:
TEI
this element is part of the TEI scheme. [Default]
DBK
(docbook) this element is part of the Docbook scheme.
XX
(unknown) this element is part of an unknown scheme.
Schematron
this element is from Schematron.
HTML
this element is from the HTML scheme.
Member of
Contained by
May containEmpty element
Example
<p>The <gi>xhtml:li</gi> element is roughly analogous to the <gi>item</gi> element, as is the
<gi scheme="DBK">listItem</gi> element.</p>

This example shows the use of both a namespace prefix and the schema attribute as alternative ways of indicating that the gi in question is not a TEI element name: in practice only one method should be adopted.

Content model
<content>
 <dataRef key="teidata.name"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element gi
{
   att.global.attributes,
   attribute scheme { teidata.enumerated }?,
   teidata.name
}

<gloss>

<gloss> identifies a phrase or word used to provide a gloss or definition for some other word or phrase. [3.3.4. Terms, Glosses, Equivalents, and Descriptions 22.4.1. Description of Components]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.declaring (@decls) att.translatable (@versionDate) att.typed (@type, @subtype) att.pointing (@targetLang, @target, @evaluate) att.cReferencing (@cRef)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Note

The target and cRef attributes are mutually exclusive.

Example
We may define <term xml:id="tdpvrend="sc">discoursal point of view</term> as
<gloss target="#tdpv">the relationship, expressed
through discourse structure, between the implied author or some other addresser, and the
fiction.</gloss>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element gloss
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.declaring.attributes,
   att.translatable.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.pointing.attributes,
   att.cReferencing.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}

<graphic>

<graphic> indicates the location of a graphic or illustration, either forming part of a text, or providing an image of it. [3.9. Graphics and Other Non-textual Components 11.1. Digital Facsimiles]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.media (@width, @height, @scale) att.resourced (@url) att.declaring (@decls)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
core: desc
Note

The mimeType attribute should be used to supply the MIME media type of the image specified by the url attribute.

Within the body of a text, a graphic element indicates the presence of a graphic component in the source itself. Within the context of a <facsimile> or <sourceDoc> element, however, a graphic element provides an additional digital representation of some part of the source being encoded.

Example
<figure>
 <graphic url="fig1.png"/>
 <head>Figure One: The View from the Bridge</head>
 <figDesc>A Whistleresque view showing four or five sailing boats in the foreground, and a
   series of buoys strung out between them.</figDesc>
</figure>
Example
<facsimile>
 <surfaceGrp n="leaf1">
  <surface>
   <graphic url="page1.png"/>
  </surface>
  <surface>
   <graphic url="page2-highRes.png"/>
   <graphic url="page2-lowRes.png"/>
  </surface>
 </surfaceGrp>
</facsimile>
Content model
<content>
 <classRef key="model.descLike"
  minOccurs="0maxOccurs="unbounded"/>

</content>
Schema Declaration
element graphic
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.media.attributes,
   att.resourced.attributes,
   att.declaring.attributes,
   model.descLike*
}

<group>

<group> contains the body of a composite text, grouping together a sequence of distinct texts (or groups of such texts) which are regarded as a unit for some purpose, for example the collected works of an author, a sequence of prose essays, etc. [4. Default Text Structure 4.3.1. Grouped Texts 15.1. Varieties of Composite Text]
Moduletextstructure
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.declaring (@decls) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
Contained by
textstructure: group text
May contain
Example
<text>
<!-- Section on Alexander Pope starts -->
 <front>
<!-- biographical notice by editor -->
 </front>
 <group>
  <text>
<!-- first poem -->
  </text>
  <text>
<!-- second poem -->
  </text>
 </group>
</text>
<!-- end of Pope section-->
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <alternate minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">

   <classRef key="model.divTop"/>
   <classRef key="model.global"/>
  </alternate>
  <sequence>
   <alternate>
    <elementRef key="text"/>
    <elementRef key="group"/>
   </alternate>
   <alternate minOccurs="0"
    maxOccurs="unbounded">

    <elementRef key="text"/>
    <elementRef key="group"/>
    <classRef key="model.global"/>
   </alternate>
  </sequence>
  <classRef key="model.divBottom"
   minOccurs="0maxOccurs="unbounded"/>

 </sequence>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element group
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.declaring.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   (
      ( model.divTop | model.global )*,
      ( ( text | group ), ( text | group | model.global )* ),
      model.divBottom*
   )
}
<head> (heading) contains any type of heading, for example the title of a section, or the heading of a list, glossary, manuscript description, etc. [4.2.1. Headings and Trailers]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type, @subtype) att.written (@hand)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Note

The head element is used for headings at all levels; software which treats (e.g.) chapter headings, section headings, and list titles differently must determine the proper processing of a head element based on its structural position. A head occurring as the first element of a list is the title of that list; one occurring as the first element of a <div1> is the title of that chapter or section.

Example

The most common use for the head element is to mark the headings of sections. In older writings, the headings or incipits may be rather longer than usual in modern works. If a section has an explicit ending as well as a heading, it should be marked as a trailer, as in this example:

<div1 n="Itype="book">
 <head>In the name of Christ here begins the first book of the ecclesiastical history of
   Georgius Florentinus, known as Gregory, Bishop of Tours.</head>
 <div2 type="section">
  <head>In the name of Christ here begins Book I of the history.</head>
  <p>Proposing as I do ...</p>
  <p>From the Passion of our Lord until the death of Saint Martin four hundred and twelve
     years passed.</p>
  <trailer>Here ends the first Book, which covers five thousand, five hundred and ninety-six
     years from the beginning of the world down to the death of Saint Martin.</trailer>
 </div2>
</div1>
Example

The head element is also used to mark headings of other units, such as lists:

With a few exceptions, connectives are equally
useful in all kinds of discourse: description, narration, exposition, argument. <list rend="bulleted">
 <head>Connectives</head>
 <item>above</item>
 <item>accordingly</item>
 <item>across from</item>
 <item>adjacent to</item>
 <item>again</item>
 <item>
<!-- ... -->
 </item>
</list>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">

  <textNode/>
  <elementRef key="lg"/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.phrase"/>
  <classRef key="model.inter"/>
  <classRef key="model.lLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element head
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.written.attributes,
   (
      text
    | lgmodel.gLikemodel.phrasemodel.intermodel.lLikemodel.global
   )*
}

<hi>

<hi> (highlighted) marks a word or phrase as graphically distinct from the surrounding text, for reasons concerning which no claim is made. [3.3.2.2. Emphatic Words and Phrases 3.3.2. Emphasis, Foreign Words, and Unusual Language]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.written (@hand)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Example
<hi rend="gothic">And this Indenture further witnesseth</hi>
that the said <hi rend="italic">Walter Shandy</hi>, merchant,
in consideration of the said intended marriage ...
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element hi { att.global.attributes, att.written.attributes, macro.paraContent }

<ident>

<ident> (identifier) contains an identifier or name for an object of some kind in a formal language. ident is used for tokens such as variable names, class names, type names, function names etc. in formal programming languages. [22.1.1. Phrase Level Terms]
Moduletagdocs
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
Member of
Contained by
May containCharacter data only
Note

In running prose, this element may be used for any kind of identifier in any formal language. It should not be used for element and attribute names in XML, for which the special elements gi and att are provided.

Example
<ident type="ns">http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples</ident>
Content model
<content>
 <textNode/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element ident { att.global.attributes, att.typed.attributes, text }

<idno>

<idno> (identifier) supplies any form of identifier used to identify some object, such as a bibliographic item, a person, a title, an organization, etc. in a standardized way. [2.2.4. Publication, Distribution, Licensing, etc. 2.2.5. The Series Statement 3.11.2.4. Imprint, Size of a Document, and Reprint Information]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.sortable (@sortKey) att.datable (@period) (att.datable.w3c (@when)) att.typed (type, @subtype)
typecategorizes the identifier, for example as an ISBN, Social Security number, etc. Suggested values include: 1] ISBN; 2] ISSN; 3] DOI; 4] URI; 5] VIAF; 6] ESTC; 7] OCLC
Derived fromatt.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Suggested values include:
ISBN
International Standard Book Number: a 13- or (if assigned prior to 2007) 10-digit identifying number assigned by the publishing industry to a published book or similar item, registered with the International ISBN Agency.
ISSN
International Standard Serial Number: an eight-digit number to uniquely identify a serial publication.
DOI
Digital Object Identifier: a unique string of letters and numbers assigned to an electronic document.
URI
Uniform Resource Identifier: a string of characters to uniquely identify a resource which usually contains indication of the means of accessing that resource, the name of its host, and its filepath.
VIAF
A data number in the Virtual Internet Authority File assigned to link different names in catalogs around the world for the same entity.
ESTC
English Short-Title Catalogue number: an identifying number assigned to a document in English printed in the British Isles or North America before 1801.
OCLC
union catalog number in WorldCat representing a resource held by one or more of the member libraries in the global cooperative Online Computer Library Center.
Member of
Contained by
May contain
header: idno
character data
Note

idno should be used for labels which identify an object or concept in a formal cataloguing system such as a database or an RDF store, or in a distributed system such as the World Wide Web. Some suggested values for type on idno are ISBN, ISSN, DOI, and URI.

Example
<idno type="ISBN">978-1-906964-22-1</idno>
<idno type="ISSN">0143-3385</idno>
<idno type="DOI">10.1000/123</idno>
<idno type="URI">http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/185922478</idno>
<idno type="URI">http://authority.nzetc.org/463/</idno>
<idno type="LT">Thomason Tract E.537(17)</idno>
<idno type="Wing">C695</idno>
<idno type="oldCat">
 <g ref="#sym"/>345
</idno>

In the last case, the identifier includes a non-Unicode character which is defined elsewhere by means of a <glyph> or <char> element referenced here as #sym.

Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">

  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <elementRef key="idno"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element idno
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.sortable.attributes,
   att.datable.attributes,
   att.typed.attribute.subtype,
   attribute type
   {
      "ISBN"
    | "ISSN"
    | "DOI"
    | "URI"
    | "VIAF"
    | "ESTC"
    | "OCLC"
    | teidata.enumerated
   }?,
   ( text | model.gLike | idno )*
}

<imprimatur>

<imprimatur> contains a formal statement authorizing the publication of a work, sometimes required to appear on a title page or its verso. [4.6. Title Pages]
Moduletextstructure
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
textstructure: titlePage
May contain
Example
<imprimatur>Licensed and entred acording to Order.</imprimatur>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element imprimatur { att.global.attributes, macro.paraContent }

<index>

<index> (index entry) marks a location to be indexed for whatever purpose. [3.8.2. Index Entries]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.spanning (@spanTo)
indexNamea single word which follows the rules defining a legal XML name (see http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml/#dt-name), supplying a name to specify which index (of several) the index entry belongs to.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.name
Note

This attribute makes it possible to create multiple indexes for a text.

Member of
Contained by
May contain
core: index term
Example
David's other principal backer, Josiah ha-Kohen
<index indexName="NAMES">
 <term>Josiah ha-Kohen b. Azarya</term>
</index> b. Azarya, son of one of the last gaons of Sura <index indexName="PLACES">
 <term>Sura</term>
</index> was David's own first cousin.
Content model
<content>
 <sequence minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">

  <elementRef key="term"/>
  <elementRef key="indexminOccurs="0"/>
 </sequence>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element index
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.spanning.attributes,
   attribute indexName { teidata.name }?,
   ( term, index? )*
}

<interp>

<interp> (interpretation) summarizes a specific interpretative annotation which can be linked to a span of text. [17.3. Spans and Interpretations]
Moduleanalysis
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.interpLike (@type, @inst)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
core: desc
character data
Note

Generally, each interp element carries an xml:id attribute. This permits the encoder to explicitly associate the interpretation represented by the content of an interp with any textual element through its ana attribute.

Alternatively (or, in addition) an interp may carry an inst attribute which points to one or more textual elements to which the analysis represented by the content of the interp applies.

Example
<interp type="structuralunit"
 xml:id="ana_am">
aftermath</interp>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">

  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.descLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.certLike"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element interp
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.interpLike.attributes,
   ( text | model.gLike | model.descLike | model.certLike )*
}

<interpGrp>

<interpGrp> (interpretation group) collects together a set of related interpretations which share responsibility or type. [17.3. Spans and Interpretations]
Moduleanalysis
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.interpLike (@type, @inst)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: interp
core: desc
Note

Any number of interp elements.

Example
<interpGrp resp="#TMA"
 type="structuralunit">

 <desc>basic structural organization</desc>
 <interp xml:id="I1">introduction</interp>
 <interp xml:id="I2">conflict</interp>
 <interp xml:id="I3">climax</interp>
 <interp xml:id="I4">revenge</interp>
 <interp xml:id="I5">reconciliation</interp>
 <interp xml:id="I6">aftermath</interp>
</interpGrp>
<bibl xml:id="TMA">
<!-- bibliographic citation for source of this interpretive framework -->
</bibl>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <classRef key="model.descLike"
   minOccurs="0maxOccurs="unbounded"/>

  <elementRef key="interpminOccurs="1"
   maxOccurs="unbounded"/>

 </sequence>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element interpGrp
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.interpLike.attributes,
   ( model.descLike*, interp+ )
}

<item>

<item> contains one component of a list. [3.7. Lists 2.6. The Revision Description]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.sortable (@sortKey)
Contained by
core: list
May contain
Note

May contain simple prose or a sequence of chunks.

Whatever string of characters is used to label a list item in the copy text may be used as the value of the global n attribute, but it is not required that numbering be recorded explicitly. In ordered lists, the n attribute on the item element is by definition synonymous with the use of the label element to record the enumerator of the list item. In glossary lists, however, the term being defined should be given with the label element, not n.

Example
<list rend="numbered">
 <head>Here begin the chapter headings of Book IV</head>
 <item n="4.1">The death of Queen Clotild.</item>
 <item n="4.2">How King Lothar wanted to appropriate one third of the Church revenues.</item>
 <item n="4.3">The wives and children of Lothar.</item>
 <item n="4.4">The Counts of the Bretons.</item>
 <item n="4.5">Saint Gall the Bishop.</item>
 <item n="4.6">The priest Cato.</item>
 <item> ...</item>
</list>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.specialPara"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element item
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.sortable.attributes,
   macro.specialPara
}

<keywords>

<keywords> contains a list of keywords or phrases identifying the topic or nature of a text. [2.4.3. The Text Classification]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
schemeidentifies the controlled vocabulary within which the set of keywords concerned is defined, for example by a taxonomy element, or by some other resource.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.pointer
Contained by
header: textClass
May contain
core: list term
Note

Each individual keyword (including compound subject headings) should be supplied as a term element directly within the keywords element. An alternative usage, in which each term appears within a item inside a list is permitted for backwards compatibility, but is deprecated.

If no control list exists for the keywords used, then no value should be supplied for the scheme attribute.

Example
<keywords scheme="http://classificationweb.net">
 <term>Babbage, Charles</term>
 <term>Mathematicians - Great Britain - Biography</term>
</keywords>
Example
<keywords>
 <term>Fermented beverages</term>
 <term>Central Andes</term>
 <term>Schinus molle</term>
 <term>Molle beer</term>
 <term>Indigenous peoples</term>
 <term>Ethnography</term>
 <term>Archaeology</term>
</keywords>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate>
  <elementRef key="termminOccurs="1"
   maxOccurs="unbounded"/>

  <elementRef key="list"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element keywords
{
   att.global.attributes,
   attribute scheme { teidata.pointer }?,
   ( term+ | list )
}

<l>

<l> (verse line) contains a single, possibly incomplete, line of verse. [3.12.1. Core Tags for Verse 3.12. Passages of Verse or Drama 7.2.5. Speech Contents]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.fragmentable (@part)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Example
<l met="x/x/x/x/x/real="/xx/x/x/x/">Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?</l>
Schematron

<s:report test="ancestor::tei:l[not(.//tei:note//tei:l[. = current()])]"> Abstract model violation: Lines may not contain lines or lg elements.
</s:report>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">

  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.phrase"/>
  <classRef key="model.inter"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element l
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.fragmentable.attributes,
   ( text | model.gLike | model.phrase | model.inter | model.global )*
}

<label>

<label> contains any label or heading used to identify part of a text, typically but not exclusively in a list or glossary. [3.7. Lists]
Modulecore
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type, @subtype) att.placement (@place) att.written (@hand)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Example

Labels are commonly used for the headwords in glossary lists; note the use of the global xml:lang attribute to set the default language of the glossary list to Middle English, and identify the glosses and headings as modern English or Latin:

<list type="glossxml:lang="enm">
 <head xml:lang="en">Vocabulary</head>
 <headLabel xml:lang="en">Middle English</headLabel>
 <headItem xml:lang="en">New English</headItem>
 <label>nu</label>
 <item xml:lang="en">now</item>
 <label>lhude</label>
 <item xml:lang="en">loudly</item>
 <label>bloweth</label>
 <item xml:lang="en">blooms</item>
 <label>med</label>
 <item xml:lang="en">meadow</item>
 <label>wude</label>
 <item xml:lang="en">wood</item>
 <label>awe</label>
 <item xml:lang="en">ewe</item>
 <label>lhouth</label>
 <item xml:lang="en">lows</item>
 <label>sterteth</label>
 <item xml:lang="en">bounds, frisks (cf. <cit>
   <ref>Chaucer, K.T.644</ref>
   <quote>a courser, <term>sterting</term>as the fyr</quote>
  </cit>
 </item>
 <label>verteth</label>
 <item xml:lang="la">pedit</item>
 <label>murie</label>
 <item xml:lang="en">merrily</item>
 <label>swik</label>
 <item xml:lang="en">cease</item>
 <label>naver</label>
 <item xml:lang="en">never</item>
</list>
Example

Labels may also be used to record explicitly the numbers or letters which mark list items in ordered lists, as in this extract from Gibbon's Autobiography. In this usage the label element is synonymous with the n attribute on the item element:

I will add two facts, which have seldom occurred
in the composition of six, or at least of five quartos. <list rend="runontype="ordered">
 <label>(1)</label>
 <item>My first rough manuscript, without any intermediate copy, has been sent to the press.</item>
 <label>(2) </label>
 <item>Not a sheet has been seen by any human eyes, excepting those of the author and the
   printer: the faults and the merits are exclusively my own.</item>
</list>
Example

Labels may also be used for other structured list items, as in this extract from the journal of Edward Gibbon:

<list type="gloss">
 <label>March 1757.</label>
 <item>I wrote some critical observations upon Plautus.</item>
 <label>March 8th.</label>
 <item>I wrote a long dissertation upon some lines of Virgil.</item>
 <label>June.</label>
 <item>I saw Mademoiselle Curchod — <quote xml:lang="la">Omnia vincit amor, et nos cedamus
     amori.</quote>
 </item>
 <label>August.</label>
 <item>I went to Crassy, and staid two days.</item>
</list>

Note that the label might also appear within the item rather than as its sibling. Though syntactically valid, this usage is not recommended TEI practice.

Example

Labels may also be used to represent a label or heading attached to a paragraph or sequence of paragraphs not treated as a structural division, or to a group of verse lines. Note that, in this case, the label element appears within the p or lg element, rather than as a preceding sibling of it.

<p>[...]
<lb/>&amp; n’entrer en mauuais &amp; mal-heu-
<lb/>ré meſnage. Or des que le conſente-
<lb/>ment des parties y eſt le mariage eſt
<lb/> arreſté, quoy que de faict il ne ſoit
<label place="margin">Puiſſance maritale
   entre les Romains.</label>
 <lb/> conſommé. Depuis la conſomma-
<lb/>tion du mariage la femme eſt ſoubs
<lb/> la puiſſance du mary, s’il n’eſt eſcla-
<lb/>ue ou enfant de famille : car en ce
<lb/> cas, la femme, qui a eſpouſé vn en-
<lb/>fant de famille, eſt ſous la puiſſance
[...]</p>

In this example the text of the label appears in the right hand margin of the original source, next to the paragraph it describes, but approximately in the middle of it.

If so desired the type attribute may be used to distinguish different categories of label.

Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
Schema Declaration
element label
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.placement.attributes,
   att.written.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}

<language>

<language> characterizes a single language or sublanguage used within a text. [2.4.2. Language Usage]
Moduleheader
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @next, @prev)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
ident(identifier) Supplies a language code constructed as defined in BCP 47 which is used to identify the language documented by this element, and which is referenced by the global xml:lang attribute.
Status Required
Datatype teidata.language
usagespecifies the approximate percentage (by volume) of the text which uses this language.
Status Optional
Datatype
Contained by
header: langUsage
May contain